The present study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral parent training program targeting parents of children with developmental disorders. The program focused on the acquisition of parenting skills such as behavioral modification techniques and responsive interaction skills. In addition, the program included cognitive strategies such as modification of parents' dysfunctional thinking, anger management skills, and problem solving training. 25 mothers of children with developmental disorders(ages 3-7 years) particicipated in the study. 13 mothers in training group were compared with 12 mothers in the control group. The results showed a significant decrease in the withdrawal of the Korea Adaptive Behavior Scale. Furthermore, a significant improvement in the parenting stress resulting from parent-child relationship was found. A significant change in dysfunctional attitudes and parenting sense of competence was not found. Observer-rated responsiveness in parent-child interactions as well as severity in mothers' report of problem behaviors declined significantly for mothers in the training program.
This study was aimed to determine the effects of domestic violence exposure on peer group bullying. There will be difference between effect of witnessing and victimization of domestic violence, and social cognition and emotion regulation will mediate the effects. In order to determine that, a total 386 children were given self-report measures of the type and level of violence exposure, and social-cognition. Emotion regulation capacities were assessed by teacher. Analyses indicated that while marital conflict was associated with nonvictimized aggressive behavior through social cognition, physical abuse was not linked aggressive victim behavior. But physical abuse was correlated with lability and regulation. These results demonstrate that domestic violence exposure is linked to bullying behavior, suggest that there are distinct patterns of risk associated with different forms of exposure. And bullying intervention must be differentiated by substyles of bullying.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive function of schizophrenia on emotional recognition. the subject were presented with 22 photographed face with 6 basic emotional expressions in computer monitor. And the subject were asked to identify which of the emotions best represents the affect expressed by the face(emotion identification task), and to rate the direction and intensity of facial emotion of photograph(pleasure/unpleasure rating task). The results showed that the differences of pleasure/unpleasure rating to positive emotions between subjects was not significant and normal/schizophrenia paranoid was higher than schizophrenia nonparanoid in scores on face emotion identification task. In negative emotion, there was significant difference between normal, schizophrenia paranoid and schizophrenia nonparanoid on the pleasure/unpleasure rating. And, normal, schizophrenia paranoid, schizophrenia nonparanoid obtained the higher scores on the emotion identification task in order. These results suggest that the difference of cognitive function among three groups can be expanded into the processing of emotional information and the subtype of schizophrenia can be assigned by the level of processing of emotional information. In addition, these results implicates that the application of emotional recognition program need for psychiatric rehabilitation in schizophrenia treatment and the training of emotional recognition should differ in schizophrenia subtype.
It was investigated how trait-anxiety and stress in waking life are reflected in dream content. It was recorded current dream and administered STAI-T and Life Event Questionnaire for two hundreds and thirty-three college students. Current dream contents were analysed by Hall/Van de Castle System. Dream contents of high anxiety group were more frequent in Bodily Misfortunes Percent, Misfortunes, Injured or Ill, and Anger, and less in Familiarity Percent, Expressive Communicative Activities, Sadness and Communication Media than those of low anxiety group. Dream contents of high stress group were more frequent in Cognitive Activities, Sadness and Male/Female Percent, and less in Animal Percent, Aggression/Friendliness Percent and Torso/Anatomy percent than those of low stress group. These results were partially supported by continuity hypothesis of dreaming.
This study investigated the effects of the types of children's disorders and the maternal attachment styles on rearing attitude and parenting stress. Children were divided into three groups, children with physical disabilities, with mental disorders, and normal controls. Revised Adult Attachment Scale(RAAS), Maternal Behavior Research Instrument(MBRI), and Parenting Stress Index(PSI) Scale were administered to 115 mothers of children with mental or physical disabilities and 110 mothers of normal children. The results were as follows. The mothers of children with mental disorders showed most negative rearing attitude. The mothers with secure attachment style showed more positive rearing attitude than the mothers with avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles. The mothers with secure attachment style showed more controlling attitude for the children with mental disorders than the physically disabled children and the normal children. However, the mothers with anxious or avoidant attachment styles showed more controlling attitude for physically disabled children. There were significant differences in parenting stress of mothers according to the types of disorders of children. The mothers of children with mental disorders perceived highest level of parenting stress. The mothers with avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles experienced more higher parenting stress than the mothers with secure attachment style. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
This study investigated the effect of awareness and internalization of sociocultural attitudes, self-esteem, shape and weight based self-evaluation, body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behaviors. 360 female university students participated in the study. Path analysis with EDI-2(Eating Disorder Inventory-2) revealed direct effects of BSQ(Body Dissatisfaction Questionnaire) and SATAQ(Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire) on EDI-2, while BSQ mediated the effect of RSS(Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and SAWBS(Shape and Weight Based Self-Esteem) on EDI-2. And in path analysis with EAT-26(Eating Attitudes Test-26), BSQ and SAWBS explained EAT-26 directly and BSQ mediated the effect of RSS and SATAQ on EAT-26. Also, RSS was found the least effective predictor on EDI-2 and EAT-26 among other predictors. So, body dissatisfaction, awareness and internalization of sociocultural attitudes and shape and weight based self-evaluation were identified as important predictors on disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder pathology.
The present study investigated the memory outcome of anterior temporal lobectomy(TL). 21 right and 17 left TL patients who passed the inclusion criteria(having confirmed hippocampal sclerosis, right-handed, older than 16 years, and full scale IQ higher than 69) performed logical memory, verbal paired associate, visual reproduction, and visual paired associate about 2 month before and 16 month after the surgery. In the MANOVA, four-way interaction among side of surgery(left/right), memory material(verbal/visual), phase(pre/post operation), and gender was significant. The source of effect was analyzed to locate in verbal memory improvement of women after left TL and that of men after right TL. It implies that material-specific memory decline in ipsilateral lobe, release of function in the contralateral lobe, and higher plasticity of verbal memory in women as a gender difference may interact to determine the pattern of memory change. In addition we explored the predicting variables of memory change. To the prediction of verbal memory change, age at operation made a significant contribution, but pre-operation memory level or age at onset did not. On the other hand, as for the visual memory we failed to find any predicting variable. To solve the null result from visual memory, a proposal to adopt the position memory task as an alternative measure was presented.
Children of schizophrenic patients were tested for their ability to recognize facial expressions. Thirty-three facial expressions of actors and actresses were presented in photographs to 11 children of schizophrenic patients, 14 of patients with other psychiatric disorders and 13 of normal persons. The participants were given two tasks: Labeling task where they were asked to identify emotion appropriate for each face and rating task where they were asked to make rating on the dimensions of pleasure/displeasure and arousal expressed in the face. In the labeling task, 7 alternatives-6 emotions(happiness, surprise, fear, contempt, anger and sadness) and 'other'-were given. A 7 point likert scale was used in the rating task. The results were as follows. In the labeling task, children of schizophrenic patients showed less agreement than the other two groups. In the rating task, the three groups did not show significant differences in the overall mean rating of pleasure/displeasure or arousal. However, pleasure/displeasure ratings of the children of schizophrenic patients were more deviated from those of college students than the other two groups, particularly for face with positive or neutral emotions, suggesting that they are likely to distort the extent of pleasure/displeasure in facial expressions. Implications of these findings and methodological limitations were discussed.
Ten years have passed since the publication of K-WAIS, but some Korean clinicians still prefer using KWIS. Their preference for KWIS may reflect certain doubts about the validity of K-WAIS on their part. The most serious of the doubts is derived from the fact that IQs measured on the basis of K-WAIS are very low compared with IQs measured on the basis of KWIS. However, lower IQs using a new version of an intelligence test relative to an old version is related to a rise of intelligence across generations (or cohorts). Thus, the phenomenon is not specific to Korea but found in most other countries as well. In addition, in Korea in which the rise of intelligence is estimated to be very steep during the past decades, it is only natural to expect that IQs measured on the basis of a new version are not just low, but very low compared with IQs measured on the basis of an old version. Thus, the view that IQs measured on the basis of K-WAIS are very low is an illusion derived from the preconception that IQs measured on the basis of KWIS are correct. Considering the fact that rise of intelligence in Korea was very steep, a use of KWIS should result in severe overestimation of true intelligence. Thus, use of K-WAIS is strongly recommended.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the discriminative validity of the Enhanced Cued Recall Task(ECR) for early AD. The ECR induces semantic processing and coordinates encoding and retrieval for maximum recall by using the same category cues at learning and retrieval. Therefore the ECR reduces the influence of inefficient strategies or other cognitive process such as attention. There were 2 groups in this study: 21 early AD subjects; 21 geriatric depression subjects, who complained of memory decline, but, the results of comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation showed no impairment. The ECR, 3-word recall task of Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), Korean Auditory Verbal Learning Test(K-AVLT) were administered. Discriminant analysis indicated that the overall percentage of correct classification was 100%. ECR total score, K-AVLT recognition, delayed recall scores were highly correlated with Function which discriminate early AD group from geriatric depression group. The ECR had a higher sensitivity and specificity than the 3-word recall task of K-MMSE and similar sensitivity and specificity to K-AVLT delayed recall and recognition. In conclusion, this study suggests that the ECR may be very useful for discriminating genuine memory impairment of early AD from memory complaints of geriatric depression.
This study investigated Rorschach responses of Japanese military comfort women. Subjects were 26 Japanese military comfort women who agreed to test and 24 community samples who were same sex, age, education with comfort women. Rorschach protocols were administered, scored, analysed according to the Exner's comprehensive system(1993). Each Rorschach variables was divided into 5 clusters(Control and stress tolerance, Cognition, Affect, Self-perception, Interpersonal-perception) due to the Exner's comprehensive system(1993), and added to Trauma-Content Index(TC/R) which was developed by Armstrong and Loewenstein(1990). As a result, group of Japanese military comfort women was characterized as (1) inefficient problem- solving and coping, (2) perceptual inaccuracy, (3) affect dysregulation, (4) intrusive traumatic imagery. First, low Lambda, high D, AdjD, high Zf, W, DQ+% were found in comfort women group. It tells us comfort women's tendency that they use excessive energy to solve problems instead of using simple and economical strategy. Second, low X+%, F+%, high X-%, S-%, high WSum6, elevation of DR response suggests perceptual inaccuracy and poor reality testing. Third, elevation of CF, AG, Space response suggests that comfort women have a problem with impulsive emotional expression and inner anger and aggression. Finally, comfort women displayed the elevated rate of TC/R, and this finding suggests that comfort women still have difficulties in issues associated with the past trauma and following psychological sequela.
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of the Clock Drawing Test(CDT) for differentiating mild dementia from geriatric depression and normal elderly person. The CDT was administered to 25 patients with clinically diagnosed mild dementia, 25 with geriatric depression and 25 normal control and these groups were similar in age, education and gender. The cut-off scores, efficiencies, sensitivities, specificities, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of each group were calculated and then the analysis of error type was conducted. CDT significantly discriminated mild dementia patients from geriatric depression patients or normal controls but could not discriminate geriatric depression patients from normal controls. In the error type analysis of clock drawing, 'stimulus bound response', 'conceptual error' and 'spatial and planning error' were more frequent in patients with mild dementia than in normal controls or in geriatric depression patients. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
Anxiety sensitivity is well known to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder. Since the development of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index(ASI), there has been considerable controversy in the literature about its factor structure. To examine the factor structure of a Korean version of the ASI(K-ASI), various factor models identified in previous studies were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis(CFA). K-ASI responses were collected from 333 undergraduate students. The results of CFA supported a hierarchical factor structure consisting of 4 lower order factors and 1 higher order factor. The lower order factors as originally identified by Peterson & Heilbronner(1987) were fear of mental catastrophe, fear of publicly observable anxiety reactions, fear of cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal sensations, and fear of vasovagal sensations. The implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
This study was attempted MMPI profile characteristics of the group of PTSD patients due to war and the group of PTSD patients due to accidents. Also it was investigated to find the differences between the group of PTSD patients due to war and the group of PTSD patients due to accidents. Ninty-seven PTSD patients(patients due to war-53, patients due to accidents-44) were selected based on DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria, and their MMPI responses were analysed. The results of former group showed that the specific code-type was not found, but showed elevated scores of the F, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0 scales over 60T score. The results of latter group showed that the specific code-type was found 1-7, 1 on 70.50T and 7 on 69.59T score. The former scored significantly higher than the group of normal people in all scales(p<.05) except scale of K, and the latter scored significantly higher than the group of normal people in the L, F, Mf, Pa, Pt, Sc, Ma scales(p<.05). The clinical implications and limitations of present study were discussed.
The present studies tested the validity of malingering scale after mild head trauma, with two primary objectives in mind. They were : First, to differentiate the artificial and exaggerate complaints from true symptoms of mild head trauma. Second, to specify the psychological conditions of malingering. MMPI was administered to 89 patients after mild head trauma. Results showed that Malingering Scale had sufficient internal reliability(Cronbach's α=.9264) and conceptual validity. The results of data mining showed that superficial and nonadaptive coping skills might predict malingering mainly by suggesting of surpression and intention. The integrated model of malingering will fit clinical condition with compensation very well when the data from various neuropsychological assessment were added. The future study on malingering through data mining is desirable to simultaneous consider various clinical sample and scale procedure.
‘Inhibition of Return’ is the inhibition mechanism that is nearly to becoming automatic process and it is essential in effective visual search. The aim of this study is to clarify whether there are subgroups showing inhibition of return deficit in ADHD group or not, and to examine the features of ihnibition of return deficit in ADHD group. As a results, 10 children among 24 ADHD group that were consulted psychological testing under impression of ADHD didn't show inhibition of return in condition of 1000ms SOA(Stimulus Onset Asynchony). In group comparison test, there were no significant group differences on IQ and age variables between groups, but there were significant group differences in reaction time variance(in CPT). In other variables of CPT the performance(ommission error, commission error, reaction time), 14 children who showed 'inhibition of return' were superior to 10 children who didn't show 'inhibition of return'. The result of this study indicated that there exist subgroups in ADHD and that the inhibition of return mechanism will be the indicator to discriminate the child with basic attention deficit from the child with temporarily attentional problem due to emotional problem.
The reliability and validity of MCMI-III Alcohol Dependence Scale(MCMI-B) in Korean version were evaluated with college students(N=264). Internal consistency coefficient(Cronbach α) of MCMI-B was .58. Concurrent validity coefficients of MCMI-B were .56 with MAST and .43 with CAGE. The cut-off point of MCMI-B for diagnosing alcoholism was explored. Considering correct classifying ratio, sensitivity and specificity Raw Score 7(Base Rate Scale Score 75) was suggested best cut-off point. Factor analysis of MCMI-B revealed that 3 factor model is appropriate.