Insomnia and depression are common to patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). This study was conducted in order to explore the objective sleep characteristics, insomnia, and depressive symptoms of OSA and non-OSA patients and to provide clinical implications for diagnosis and treatment of OSA. A total of 145 patients (126 men, 19 women, average age: 49.56±12.06 years), who had been diagnosed as OSA, were administered polysomnography (PSG), the insomnia inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The PSG showed that subjects in the OSA group had lower Sleep Efficiency (SE) and more difficulty in maintaining deep sleep than those in the non-OSA group. Although both the OSA and non-OSA groups had a significant level of insomnia and depressive symptoms, the non-OSA group showed more severe insomnia and depression than the OSA group. Correlation analysis was performed for identification of the significant indices of PSG relating to insomnia and depression. In the OSA group, patients who complained of more severe insomnia showed low SE and high Wakefulness After Sleep Onset (WASO). In addition, with greater depression, they showed high WASO and low Total Sleep Time (TST) and SE. However, in the non-OSA group, no correlation was observed between ISI or BDI and important sleep indices of PSG. Thus, for assessment of patients with OSA, it is necessary to examine not only physiological indices of the PSG but also the subjective clinical symptoms, such as insomnia and depression, so that we can anticipate problems that may occur during treatment and design tailored and efficient treatment plans.
Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), a clinician-administered measure of social anxiety and avoidance, was originally developed with separate subscales for assessment of fear and avoidance of situations involving social interaction and performance/observation by others. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Korean Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale: Clinician Administered (K-LSAS-CA) and to demonstrate its diagnostic efficacy. The result of an exploratory factor analysis of a sample consisting of 28 social phobic patients and 98 healthy adults showed a four-factor structure for each : (1) public speaking, (2) social interaction with strangers, (3) assertiveness, and (4) public interaction. We performd ROC analysis in order to examined the reliability and construct validity of the instrument and for assessment of diagnostic efficacy. In comparision of K-LSAS-CA and K-LSAS-SR (self-report version) in the group of 98 healthy adults, the total score for K-LSAS-SR was significantly higher than that of the patients group. Finally, we discussed implications of the LSAS-CA with regard to the study and treatment of social anxiety disorder.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of executive functions on the relationships between adolescents’ symptoms of ADHD and quality of peer relationships. Subjects included 450 middle school students, 197 boys and 253 girls in Seoul, who were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions, and Quality of Peer Relationship Scale. SPSS 15.0 and AMOS 7.0 were used for analysis of data. The results were as follows: First, shift, monitor and task completion, which were sub-factors of executive functions, had significant effects on total score for quality of peer relationships. In addition, plan/organize, organization of materials, and task completion had effects on the positive sub-factor of quality of peer relationships, and inhibit, shift, and emotion control had significant effects on negative sub-factors. Second, total score for executive functions perfectly mediated the way in which ADHD symptoms effect the quality of peer relationships. Therefore, adolescents could have peer relational difficulties resulting from defects of executive functions, not just by primary ADHD symptoms. Findings of this study confirmed that executive functions had mediating effects on relationships between adolescents’ symptoms of ADHD and quality of peer relationships.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of temperament, character, coping style, and the mediating effects of character and coping style on depression. Data were collected from psychiatric patients who were diagnosed as Major depressive disorder without psychotic features, Dysthymic disorder, and Depressive disorder, NOS. We excluded some cases for several reasons(patients who were also diagnosed as Psychosis, Mental retardation, Dementia and Other cognitive disorder caused by brain damage, and loss of data);, a total of 142 cases(male 76, female 66) were analyzed. The results indicated a significant association of harm avoidance and novelty seeking in temperament, self-directedness in character, and problem-solving in coping style with depression. Results of structural equation modeling showed that harm avoidance and novelty seeking were mediated by self-directedness and problem-solving on depression, in order, meanings that the effects of harm avoidance and novelty seeking were completely mediated through self-directedness, and the effects of self-directedness were mediated in part by problem-solving. The findings of this study suggest that high harm avoidance, low novelty seeking, self-directedness, and problem-solving are risk factors for depression, and the effects of temperament on depression may depend on the character, like self-directedness and the coping style associated with the character. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Suicide is the leading cause of death among adolescents in The Republic of Korea. Approximately 15,906 adolescents died by suicide in 2011. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of resilience as a protective factor for suicide in adolescent patients with depression. The participants(n=59) underwent a psychiatric interview which included the Korean Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version(K-SADS-PL) and the Columbia University Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). In addition, they completed the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Scale for Suicidal Ideation(B-SSI), & the Resilience scales. Thus, 26 patients with a history of attempting suicide were classified as the Suicide Behavior group and 33 patients were identified as the Non-Suicidal Behavior group. As a result, ‘positivity’ was suggested as playing a key role in suicide attempt. The limitations of this study and suggestions for further research are also discussed.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the mediational effects of basic psychological needs between anger coping behaviors and subjective well-being. Anger coping behaviors were classified according to five types (Rational coping, Aggressive expression, Avoidance, Emotional resolution, and Distraction). Subjective well-being was assessed using the Satisfaction with life and the Positive/Negative affect. A total of 387 undergraduates were recruited for this study. Rational coping and Avoidance in anger coping behaviors showed stastistically significant correlation with both satisfaction of basic psychological needs and subjective well-being. On the basis of these results, two mediation models(Rational coping/ Avoidance→satisfaction of basic psychological needs→subjective well-being)were proposed. According to the results, two models showed satisfactory fits to data, and mediation effect of basic psychological needs between Rational coping/Avoidance and subjective well-being was statistically significant. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs fully mediated the association between Rational coping/Avoidance and subjective well-being. These results suggest that Rational coping/Avoidance in anger coping behaviors is important for enhancement of subjective well-being and that these coping behaviors enhance subjective well-being through satisfaction of basic psychological needs.
The current study examined the efficacy of positive psychotherapy (PPT) on the involuntary clients with symptoms of depression. PPT intervention is aimed at increasing happiness and decreasing the levels of depression. College students with symptoms of depression were randomly assigned to PPT intervention (n = 22) or to a waiting list (n = 36). All participants completed measures before and after the intervention for assessment of depression (CES-D), life satisfaction (SWLS), and positive and negative affect (PANAS). PPT intervention led to a statistically significant reduction in depression symptoms and negative emotions. These findings suggest that a PPT intervention can have effects not only on voluntary clients but also involuntary clients.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the attentional process of emotional (happy and angry) bodily expression recognition of a group of individuals with social anxiety. We presented pairs of emotional (angry or happy) and neutral bodily expressions to 17 individuals with high social anxiety (HSA) and 19 individuals with low social anxiety (LSA) and measured eye-movement. Categorization of emotion and rating for emotional intensity, malice, and threatening level of bodily expression was performed after measurement of eye movement. According to the results, participants in the HSA group were initially fixated and immediately avoided to happy and angry body compared to neutral body. However, participants in the LSA group showed avoidance toward angry body only. In the subjective rating and categorization, participants in the HSA group perceived happy bodily expression as more threatening than those in the LSA group. In addition, participants perceived emotional bodily expression as more intense and threatening, they showed greater avoidance of staring at emotional bodily expression. These results imply that participants in the HSA group showed a vigilance-avoidance pattern toward emotional bodily expression and perceived emotional bodily expression as more intensive and threatening.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediation effects of attachment insecurity on the relationship between childhood trauma and borderline personality traits. Subjects included 504 cyber university female students. The participants were asked to complete questionnaires, including the Trauma Antecedents Questionnaire (TAQ), Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R), and the Personality Assessment Inventory - Borderline Features Scale (PAI-BOR). Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling analysis were used for data analysis. The results were as follows: First, childhood trauma showed statistically significant positive correlation with both attachment insecurity and borderline personality traits. Second, results of structural equation modeling analyses supported the proposed mediation model. The results support a link between childhood trauma and borderline personality traits and support the hypothesis that ECR-Avoidance and ECR-Anxiety partially mediates this relationship. These results indicate that in addition to the direct effects of childhood trauma on borderline personality traits, there are also indirect effects that are mediated by attachment insecurity. Based on these results, the implications and limitations of the research were suggested.
This study investigated deficits in spatial working memory in female college students with schizotypal traits using a delayed-response task and event-related potentials (ERPs). The schizotypal trait (n=15) and normal control (n=16) groups were determined based on scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. The delayed-response task consisted of two conditions, i.e., maintenance (to judge whether the locations between the present and previously presented stimuli were the same or not) and manipulation (to manipulate the location of the presented stimulus based on the instructions, and to judge whether the location of the present stimulus was consistent with that of manipulated) conditions. In terms of response times (RTs), both groups showed significantly faster RTs in maintenance than in manipulation conditions. The schizotypal trait group showed significantly longer RTs in both conditions than the control group. In terms of accuracy rate, the two groups did not differ significantly in the maintenance condition, whereas in the manipulation condition, the schizotypal trait group showed a significantly lower accuracy rate than the control group. In terms of ERP results, P200 amplitude was greater in the manipulation condition than in the maintenance condition. The two groups did not differ significantly in P200 amplitudes in the maintenance condition, whereas the schizotypal trait group showed significantly greater P200 amplitude than the control group in the manipulation condition. The two groups did not differ significantly in P400 amplitudes. Since the P200 is considered to reflect the executive aspects of spatial working memory, including allocation of attention and resources, the present results indicate that individuals with schizotypal trait have impaired spatial working memory, which could serve as a trait-marker of schizosprectrum disorder.
In previous studies, the relationship between psychological/behavioral problems and temperament/character in adolescents was examined according to diagnoses and psychological symptoms in clinical samples or in non-clinical samples. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of temperament/character for adaptive problems in psychiatric adolescents. They are a heterogeneous group with regard to complaints, diagnoses, progress, and prognoses etc. Correlation analysis and multiple hierarchical regression analysis were performed between MMPI-A content scales(A-aln, A-con, A-las, A-fam, A-sch) and the JTCI 12-18 sub-scales. Results showed a significant relation of achievement level, and school problems to Self- Directedness. However alienation, social relational problems such as conflict with parents, and school problems showed a significant relation to Harm-Avoidance. These results should be replicated with larger samples. However, this study was meaningful with regard to examination of the features of psychiatric adolescents' temperament/character focusing on adaption not only on psychopathology.