Story recall resembles everyday memory and story recall tests assess language processing and executive function as well as memory. Although they are useful for evaluating verbal memory in older adults, the neurological validity of story recall tests have been scarcely studied. To elucidate the neurological validity of story recall, we investigated the brain metabolic correlates of the qualitative and quantitative measures in the Story Recall Test(SRT) in elderly female Koreans. Forty-five right-handed normal elderly female participants received the SRT testing and the [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanning during resting state. Correlations between the regional brain glucose metabolic rates and the SRT measures were tested using SPM2. Significant positive correlations between the SRT scores and the regional brain glucose metabolic rates were observed in several frontal regions such as the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex(BA 45) and the left/right precentral(BA 6) gyri(p < .001, uncorrected, k=50). The thematic unit scores, especially were significantly correlated with regional brain glucose metabolic rates in more frontal regions than the story unit scores were. These results suggest that the SRT performance represents basal neuronal functions in the regions related to higher language processing and executive control functions in normal elderly people. Further, this study demonstrated that qualitative scoring of the story recall test might be a useful measure for assessing cognitive aging.
The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that pathological gamblers have executive function (EF) deficits. Participants included 32 pathological gamblers and 20 normal subjects. A common limitation in previous relevant studies was use of an experimental design that could not clearly distinguish EF deficits from other cognitive deficits. To overcome this limitation, the current study employed a paired-task method, in which one task strongly demanded executive function and the other task did not. Evidence from five out of six paired tasks indicated that the pathological gambling group had a greater deficit in the task that strongly demanded EF than the task that weakly demanded EF. For example, difference between the pathological gambling and control groups was significantly greater in Executive IQ compared to Wechsler IQ. This pattern of results, which are not easily attributable to deficits in cognitive functions other than EF, provides stronger evidence for the ‘executive dysfunction’ hypothesis for pathological gambling compared with that offered by previous related studies. EF deficits in pathological gamblers may exist even before they become involved in gambling and may likely be one of the cognitive factors that make them vulnerable to addiction to gambling.
To investigate cognitive and emotional appreciation of humor among schizotypal undergraduates on schizophrenia spectrum from various angles, the current study examines not only executive functions and theory of mind, but also Martin’s integrative approach as well. In this study, SPQ-K was given to 643 university students, and the screening method employed in previous studies(top 10% as the high tendency group, bottom 10% as the low tendency group). A total of 70(high/low=40/30) participants were examined for their neurocognitive ability, theory of mind, social context comprehension, emotional intelligence, and performance of humor appreciation task(cognitive/emotional/general). According to the results, the high tendency group showed a difference in overall understanding during performance of general humor tasks. The results clearly show that they scored lower on tasks that require integration of cognitive and emotional aspects in humor appreciation. Second, perseveration, inference ability of character's thoughts and intentions, and social context comprehension ability were shown as the factors that explain poor understanding of humor in the high tendency group. This paper implies that their difficulties in complex social situations can be explained by cognitive and emotional characteristics of individuals with schizotypal trait which is complicated relation to neurocognitive and social cognitive factors.
The current study was aimed at development of a multidimensional self-report inventory of psychological symptoms of North Korean adolescent refugees: the Psychological State Inventory for North Korean Adolescent Refugees(PSI-NKR-A). After review of previous studies, we derived 11 subscales and 118 preliminary items: five Internalization Scales(Depression, Somatization, Anxiety, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Post-Traumatic Stress), two Externalization Scales(Anger and Conduct Problem), and four Supplementary Scales(Psychosis, Low Self-Esteem, Academic Stress, and Family problems). We administered the 118 preliminary items to 186 North Korean adolescent refugees and examined correlation of the items with some criterion scales and the corrected item-total correlations, resulting in a final version of the PSI-NKR-A, comprising 98 items and 11 subscales. We then administered the final version of the PSI-NKR-A to 190 North Korean adolescent refugees in order to assess its internal consistency reliability. Of the original participants, 86 subjects participated in the retest study. Results of analyses showed that the PSI-NKR-A had high internal consistency reliability, corrected item-total correlations, test-retest reliability. Finally, applications of the PSI-NKR-A and suggestions for further research were discussed.
The aim of this study is to investigate differential inhibitory functions related to emotional regulation in young adults with borderline personality traits as compared to control subjects, and to investigate relations among emotional hyper-reactivity, difficulties in emotional regulation, and performance in neuropsychological tasks measuring inhibitory functions related to emotional regulation. A BPD tendencies group (n=27) and control group (n=32) was selected among 380 undergraduate students based on scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory - Borderline Features Scale(PAI-BOR). The BPD tendencies group were compared with the control group in the following tasks using emotional stimuli (negative, neutral, and positive): the emotional Stroop test (inhibition of interference), the negative priming task (automatic, rapid, and resource-independent inhibition), and the directed forgetting task (intentional, slow, and resource-dependent inhibition). In comparison with the control group, the BPD tendencies group showed reduced inhibition of negative material in all tasks, while no significant differences were observed in performance of neutral and positive material in all tasks. In the BPD tendencies group, significant correlations were observed between reaction time to negative stimuli in the negative priming task and emotional hyper-reactivity scale scores as well as the difficulties in emotional regulation sale scores. Significant correlation was also observed between reaction time to positive stimuli in the negative priming task and emotional hyper-reactivity scale scores. The results of this study suggest that individuals with borderline personality traits have difficulties in actively suppressing information when it causes negative emotion. Inhibitory dysfunction, which is found in individuals with borderline personality traits, appears to show a closely association with emotional hyper-reactivity and difficulties in emotional regulation
The purpose of this study is to examine and elaborate the meaning reconstruction process leading to posttraumatic growth(PTG) following relational loss. This study explored cognitive processing strategies and belief systems affecting growth after relational loss. Data were collected from 205 adults who had experienced a severe relational loss. The results showed that processing of positive reappraisal, refocusing on planning, and positive refocusing(adaptive strategies) with regard to the loss events significantly predicted PTG level, and this predictability was more powerful than emotional expression. PTG was found to show a significant association with strong positive basic assumptions toward the world and self as well as weak dysfunctional beliefs. In addition, the group with loss experiences and high PTG scores had more positive and rational belief systems than the group without severe adversities. Based on the overall findings, the meaning and clinical implications of the current study regarding the meaning reconstruction process leading to PTG were discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research
This study attempted to determine whether there are gender differences in attention performance and temperament in adolescents, and, if so, which gender differences exist. Method: Sixty nine high-school students (28 boys, 41 girls) were assessed, using FACT-Ⅱ for attention performance and TCI-RS for temperament. Results: The participants did not show gender differences in all attention dimensions (i.e., concentration speed, concentration accuracy, and concentration homogeneity). In the temperament dimensions, female adolescents showed significantly higher temperament traits in reward-dependence and persistence. Regarding the relations between attention performance and temperament, only the male adolescents showed a significant positive relation between concentration accuracy and persistence. Discussion: The results of this study suggest a relation between attention performance and temperament only in male adolescents and that more research to determine the overlap between the constructs of attention and temperament should follow
The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised-Short Form(SPSI-R-SF). At the first stage, university students(N=339) were instructed to complete SPSI-R-SF(25 items), and 24 items from five indicator variables were finally selected for the study after confirmatory factory analysis as the reliability of the SPSI-R-SF(24items) was confirmed to be excellent. At the second stage, another group of university students(N=284) was included for completion of the SPSI-R-SF, PSI, life of satisfaction and CES-D. From these 2 stages of analyses, the results showed that five factories could be derived from the SPSI-R-SF, second, the SPSI-R-SF was found to show correlation with PSI, and finally, the SPSI-R-SF showed correlation with problems such as depression and life of satisfaction. Collectively, these results suggest that the SPSI-R-SF represents a reliable and valid instrument. The implications and limitations of the study were also discussed with suggestions for further research.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between distress tolerance and psychological health and the mediation effect of decentering and avoidant coping between distress tolerance and psychological health. A total of 240 university students completed an assessment battery consisting of the measures of distress tolerance, decentering, avoidant coping, positive and negative affect, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that distress tolerance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being when controlling for gender and general affect. A bootstrap approach was used to test the mediation effect of decentering and avoidant coping. The results showed that decentering and avoidant coping mediated the influence of distress tolerance on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being. In addition, avoidant coping mediated the effect of distress tolerance on anxiety symptoms and decentering mediated the effect of distress tolerance on satisfaction with life. Based on the overall findings, the meaning and clinical implications of the current study were discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research.
The purpose of the study was to examine cognitive and emotional factors associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among police officers in Korea. Police officers are frequently exposed to traumatic events at work, leading to higher risk for PTSD. Three hundred eighty three police officers agreed to participate in the study and completed a set of self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, frequency of traumatic events, alexithymia, dissociation, anxiety sensitivity, and empathy. Results showed that alexithymia, dissociation, anxiety sensitivity, and empathy were significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. As predicted, alexithymia, dissociation, and anxiety sensitivity showed positive correlations with PTSD symptoms. Among subfactors of empathic abilities, perspective taking and empathic concern were negatively correlated with PTSD symptoms whereas fantasy and personal distress were positively correlated with. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine relative contributions of predictors to PTSD symptoms after controlling for frequency of traumatic events. Results showed that alexithymia, dissociation, and anxiety sensitivity remained significant, while empathic abilities did not. Based on findings, cognitive and emotional factors associated with PTSD symptoms in police officers were discussed.
This aim of this study is to verify the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy(CBT) for adolescents who were placed on probation for sexual violence, by analyzing their re-offending rate after therapy. This study targeted 64 minors who executed an order to attend cognitive-behavioral therapy after being placed on probation for sexual violence, 82 minors who fulfilled an order to attend various existing programs and 50 minors who did not receive an order to attend any program. For analysis of the re-offending rate, police records were searched three times at intervals of three years in order not to miss juvenile criminal cases. As a result, the recidivism rate of all crime was 39.1% in the group who received cognitive-behavioral therapy, 53.7% in the group who attended existing programs and 62.0% in the group who attended nothing, thus, significant differences were observed. However, the number of teenagers who recommited sexual violence, was, respectively, three, four and three in the three groups, and, thus, no statistically significant differences were observed among them. Significant differences were also observed in the re-offending rate of all crime excepting sexual crime. Based on these results, the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy and improvements for preventing recidivism were discussed
The aim of the present study was to observe effectiveness of cognitive defusion techniques in Ed – highlight: The word “current” might also be used here. controlling anger by contrasting it against block-out-anger techniques. A total of 56 university students participated and were randomly assigned to each condition. In this study, anger was aroused by talking about a personal event involving anger. Anger and the anger-relief emotion were measured across the ex-ante and ex-post interventions using both techniques. In addition, the presence of three defusion effects on distancing, emotional discomfort regarding anger events and control behavior expected in the process of defusing anger were assessed. After anger arousal using both techniques, the measured level of anger was found to have decreased, and the level of anger-relief emotion had increased. The defusion condition group showed stronger effects on the defusion process than the compared group. These findings suggest that cognitive defusion is a more effective strategy for reducing anger than block-out-anger strategy. Finally, limitations of this study and recommendations for further studies were discussed.
People with schizophrenia show major deficits in social cognition, especially theory of mind (ToM). Social cognitive deficits are promising treatment targets for new interventions to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a Social-Cognition Rehabilitation Program (SERP) focused on theory of mind. This program was modified from the original version, developed by Kwon (2003) and verified by Choi and Kwon (2006), especially for improvement of theory of mind. The SERP focused on theory of mind was composed of 16 sessions, including 14 sessions dealing with faux pas, hidden intentions and emotions and one session each for orientation and ending. The aim of the program was to help individuals with schizophrenia to enhance social cognition including theory of mind and ultimately to promote daily social skills and interpersonal ability. The SERP focused on theory of mind was compared with treatment as usual within a two group pre-post design in 52 people with schizophrenia in the community. Theory of mind, social cognition and functional outcome were assessed before and after the eight week training phase. Patients in the treatment group showed significant improvement theory of mind and social skill abilities after the program, but not in general social cognition and interpersonal abilities. Our findings suggested that theory of mind could be improved in people with schizophrenia by implementation of a social cognition enhancing rehabilitation program focused on theory of mind. Conduct of further study will be needed in order to determine whether enhanced theory of mind will have an effect on general social cognition.
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Social Skill Rating System -Parent Form(SSRS-P; Gresham & Elliot, 1990) for elementary school students. In study 1, 892 parents of elementary students were administered with K-SSRS-P for the exploratory factor analysis(EFA), and 307 of them were administered with K-SSRS-P and K-CBCL to test the instrument’s concurrent validity. EFA yielded four interrelated factors of assertion, cooperation, responsibility and self-control in the social skill domain and three interrelated factors of hyperactivity, internalizing and externalizing in the problem behavior domain in the K-SSRS-P. The K-SSRS showed adequate internal consistency. Girls showed higher social functioning than boys did. Problem behavior scale showed significant and positive associations with K-CBCL. In study 2, 2270 parents of elementary students were administered with K-SSRS-P for the confirmatory factor analysis(CFA). CFA confirmed four factors structure of 25 items on the social skill scale and 3 factor structure of 17 items on the problem behavior scale in the K-SSRS-P and the results showed that the K-SSRS-P scores explained more variance in the data than the SSRS-P scores did. In conclusion, the K-SSRS is useful for assessing social skills in Korean elementary school students and has good psychometric properties. The implications of the cultural differences in social skills and the differential relationships of social skills to problem behaviors were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to report that male pathological gamblers have difficulty in solving social issues and to provide empirical data related to treatment. We conducted CPGI and SPSI-R in order to investigate correlations between CPGI and SPSI-R and data were collected from 112 male pathological gamblers. In addition, the sample targeted 121 participants from a health habit using CPGI in order to examine differences in social problem solution abilities between the health habit participants and pathological gamblers and T-tests were used to examine 59 participants who have not experienced any gambling problem. First, the results indicated an association of CPGI among male pathological gamblers with any significant negative correlations between subsets of factors NPO and As. Second, SPSI-R analyses showed that pathological gamblers are significantly lower than the general public. These results indicate that pathological gamblers have difficulty in social problem solving and that there is a need for development and application programs that improve abilities of social problem solving ability relation to treatment in order to be responsive to individuals with a gambling problem.