This study composed cognitive behavioral and behavioral smoking abstinence programs for korean smoking teenagers. The subjects were 160 nicotine dependent adolescents of high school (cognitive behavioral group: 62, behavioral group: 50, control group: 48). This study testified and compared the outcomes of cognitive behavioral and behavioral smoking-abstinence programs. And the subject variables, influencing the outcome of cognitive behavioral and behavioral smoking abstinence programs, were investigated. The main results are as follows. First, at post and 1-month follow-up, the daily amount of cigarettes and nicotine dependence of cognitive behavioral and behavioral group were significantly decreased. The stage of smoking abstinence and the efficacy of smoking abstinence of the two groups were significantly increased compared to them of control group. Second, at post evaluation, cognitive behavioral group has significantly more abstinent participants than behavioral group. And at 8-month follow-up, cognitive behavioral group has tendency to have more abstinent participants than behavioral group. Therefore cognitive behavioral program seemed more effective in smoking abstinence than behavioral program. Third, to investigate the subject variables, influencing the outcome of programs, cognitive behavioral and behavioral groups were divided into depressive and impulsive groups. The depressive group of cognitive behavioral program and impulsive group of behavioral program seemed to be more effective in smoking abstinence than other groups. In addition to the limits and the meanings of this study, the future research tasks for korean nicotine dependent adolescents were disscussed.
The true recovery of persons with psychiatric disability can be achieved only through work. Thus vocational rehabilitation services have been widely recognized as critical elements of both therapy and rehabilitation in the advanced countries. Most of persons with psychiatric disability desire to perform competitive jobs and also are able to do so with reasonable supports. However, the reality is that social prejudices and systematic restrictions exist as main obstacles to psychiatric vocational rehabilitation. Now it has arrived at the point that mental heath professionals including clinical psychologist have to provide the vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this article is to urge to be delivered vocational rehabilitation in mental health field of this country. First, the importance of work was highlighted in terms of the benefits work can provide uniquely for persons with psychiatric disability. Also theoretical and practical issues in the approaches of vocational rehabilitation were discussed to find an effective vocational programming. In addition, discussion was made about whether clinical psychologists should and could make a vocational rehabilitation professionals as their career. Finally, several impending tasks necessary for developing vocational rehabilitation for persons with psychiatric disability were suggested.
483 adolescents from grade 7 and 8 were sampled from a school in an area with heavy concentration of low income families. Family risk factors, parent-child relations were assessed with self-report measures at time 1; depression and externalizing behavior problems were assessed at time 2, 1 year later. SEM analysis of data from 331 adolescents(162 boys and 169 girls) who participated in both assessments revealed that adverse effects of poverty might operate through different pathways for boys and girls. For girls, family risk factors and poor parent-child relations mediated adverse effects of poverty on both depression and externalizing behavior problems. Family risk factors also had direct influence on depression in girls. Mediating effects of family risk factors and parent-child relations were significant for depression in boys, but their mediating effects for externalizing behavior problems were not supported by boys' data. Direct path from family risk factors to boys' externalizing behavior problems was nearly significant. The results were discussed in terms of implications for preventive intervention programs for adolescents in poverty.
The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between stressful life events, depression, anxiety, and children's somatic symptoms, and the moderating effect of self-concept. The measures used to assess these effects with a sample of 266 5th and 6th grade children, included Children's Somatization Inventory, Life events questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and Self-Perception Profile of Children. The results showed that anxiety, depression, and the experience of hospitalization predicted children's somatic symptoms significantly, with anxiety being the best predictor. Further analyses showed not only the significant main effect of anxiety, but also the significant interaction effects between anxiety and self-concept of physical competence and between anxiety and global self-worth. These results suggest that anxiety affects the experience of children's somatic symptoms and that self-concept moderates this process.
This study attempted to investigate the effects of emotional awareness deficit, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, emotional expressivity on depression, anxiety, somatization, and physical symptoms of middle-aged women and differences which different emotional experience groups made on depression, anxiety, somatization, and physical symptoms. The subjects, 296 middle-aged married women who ranged from 40 to 65 years old, completed study questionnaires. Stepwise multiple regression result indicates emotional awareness deficit predict depression, anxiety, somatization, physical symptoms. In contrast, emotional expressivity had negative correlation with depression, anxiety, somatization, and physical symptoms and did not predict them. Furthermore, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness only predict trait anxiety. The subjects were grouped into three different emotional experience groups. group 3, characterized by combination of high emotional awareness deficit, high ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and low emotional expressivity, showed the highest level of depression, anxiety, physical symptoms. The emotional experience profiles did not differ in specific pathology. Implications and limitations of this study were disscussed and directions for future research were suggested.
The present study examined if there's any difference in psychological characteristics of somatic patients according to the presence of physical illness. First of all, We divided the 69 subjects that showed significantly higher score in Hs scale of MMPI into two groups by physical illness, and compared them to get clinical implication. As a result, the high health anxiety group without physical illness showed significant differences in personality and cognitive variables compared with normal control group, and only in personality variables compared with the high health anxiety group with physical illness. On the other hand, there were significant differences between the high health anxiety group with physical illness and normal control group in cognitive variables. In the next place, we also investigated the group differences in the personality and cognitive variables effecting somatization. The results revealed that alexithymia and somatic attribution affected somatic symptoms in somatizing patients without physical illness, and somato-sensory amplification influenced somatic symptoms in somatizing patients with physical illness. These results suggest that somatizing patients should be classified into the different groups according to the presence of physical illness, and that these differences should be considered in future research and clinical intervention.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and cognitive functions in vascular dementia, and to find out the lesion sites in the brain that increase the risk of depression. Comprehensive cognitive functions were assessed by the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery and several executive function tests. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, and the DSM-IV criteria. The subjects were 35 patients of vascular dementia in the early stage (CDR 0.5~1) and 35 normal elderly. There was no significant difference in the demographic variables. The results showed that the vascular dementia group had significantly higher depressive levels than the normal elderly, and that depression was negatively correlated with frontal/executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and verbal memory. The hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that depression significantly predicted the phonemic fluency. This result suggests that there is a close connection between the left frontal lobe and depression. Based on this result, the vascular dementia patients were divided into two subgroups, the left frontal group that had lesions in the left frontal lobe and the others that had lesions in other areas besides the left frontal lobe. It was found that only the left frontal group had higher depressive levels than the normal elderly. The logistic regression analysis showed that the left frontal group had an odds ratio of 6.44 for the increased risk of developing depression compared with the normal elderly.
Some earlier studies indicated that social concerns dimension of anxiety sensitivity(AS) would be involved in social anxiety or social phobia. The present study evaluated the utility and specificity of AS-social concerns in predicting anxious response to a public speaking task. Anxious responding that 155 university students experienced before and during an impromptu public speaking was measured with several self-report assessment tools. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that AS-social concerns dimension significantly predicted modified versions of the Beck Anxiety Inventory prior to and following a public speaking, cost estimate for anxiety appearance, anxiety expectation, performance expectation, and ending anxiety during a public speaking after controlling for the effects of the other dimensions of AS, whereas the other dimensions of AS mostly did not. The effect of AS-social concerns dimension on anxious responses to a public speaking task was mediated through cost estimate for anxiety appearance. The findings suggest that the importance of AS-social concerns dimension should be considered in order to understand clients with social anxiety/phobia(particularly public speaking anxiety) more systematically and treat them more effectively.
A linear mediation model of social anxiety, in which dysfunctional beliefs predict social anxiety symptoms through full mediation of maladaptive automatic thoughts, was shown to fit both cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal data from general undergraduates. Using structural equation analyses, the present study evaluated the linear mediation model and two alternative models to examine whether dysfunctional beliefs predict anxious responding to a public speaking task through full mediation of negative automatic thoughts in 131 speech-anxious undergraduates. The results indicated that the linear mediation model fitted the data well, whereas the simple effect model didn't and the direct path from dysfunctional beliefs to speech-anxious responding was not significant in the full model. Furthermore, a revised linear mediation model by controlling for the influence of baseline anxiety still demonstrated an adequate fit to the data. In conclusion, these findings provide empirical support for the theoretical application of the linear mediation model of social anxiety to speech-anxious undergraduates' anxious responding to a public speaking task.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of temperament, character, and perceived parental rearing behaviors, and the mediating effects of character on depression. A total of 308 adolescents were administered self-report measures of Junior Temperament Character Inventory(JTCI), Parental Bonding Instrument(PBI), and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression for Children (CES-DC). The results indicated that harm avoidance and self-directedness were most important variables associated with depression. Novelty seeking and perceived parental care and intrusion were also significantly associated with depression. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that harm avoidance and perceived parenting behaviors had both direct effects and indirect effects mediated by self-directedness on depression. The effects of novelty seeking were found to be completely mediated through self-directedness. The findings of this study suggests that high harm avoidance, low self-directedness, and perceived negative parenting behaviors are risk factors for depression, and the influences of temperament and perceived parenting behaviors on depression may partially depend on the maturity of character in adolescence. Based on these results, implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
One of the critical defects of Wechsler scales is its insensitivity to executive functions. However, not all subtests of Wechsler scales are completely insensitive to executive functions, but some subtests are relatively sensitive to executive functions. The goal of the present study was to devise a method to compare executive and non-executive functions using Wechsler scales. A validity study using schizophrenic patients indicated that Block Design and Digit Symbol are relatively sensitive to executive functions, whereas Information and Comprehension are insensitive to executive functions. A normative study was also performed to provide normative data for comparing the average of Block Design and Digit Symbol with the average of Information and Comprehension. Even Wechsler subtests that are relatively sensitive to executive functions were less sensitive to executive functions than specialized executive-function tests. These results indicate that assessment of executive functions based on Wechsler scales is clinically useful but not sufficiently sensitive to executive functions. Thus, use of specialized executive-function tests is essential to properly assess executive functions.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a test to diagnose personality disorders. This diagnostic test is composed of the contents which respects the characteristics of Korean. Preliminary items were developed based on the research by Hwang (1995). The data of 374 college students and 322 normal adults, namely a total of 696 respondents were analysed. 10 sub-scale scores obtained from the present personality disorder diagnostic test showed values of Cronbach alpha average .67, ranging from .53 (OC) ~ to .75 (ST), which is generally considered as acceptable level of internal consistency. Test-retest reliability (n=52) results indicated chronical scale stability, with correlation coefficient average 0.75, raging 0.58(NC) to 0.89(DP). Correlation analysis among each scale supported construct validity of the present personality disorder diagnostic test. Most of scales were found to reflect the structural relation of personality disorders in DSM. MMPI personality disorder scale (MPDS) and PDQ-4＋ examination were used as criteria to examine criterion-related validity of the present personality disorder diagnostic test. All the 10 pairs of personality disorder showed significant correlations. The results of this study indicated that the present diagnostic test for personality disorders have validity and reliability as a personality disorder test. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed finally.
To test reliability and validity of the Gambling Attitude and Belief Survey(GABS), the GABS, the Korean South Oaks Gambling Screen(K-SOGS), and the Irrational Gambling Belief Questionnaire(IGBQ) were administered to 795 adults which had experienced gambling. the GABS showed good internal consistency(α = .91) and modest concurrent validity(r = .17) with IGBQ. Factor analysis of the GABS revealed single factor solution is appropriate. Pathological gamblers scored higher than problem gamblers, and pathological and problem gamblers scored higher than non-problem gamblers on the GABS. By item analysis, 19 items identified to be effective items in differentiating pathological gamblers from other gamblers.