This study attempted to identify factors associated with mentally ill people's rehabilitation motivation and also examined the relationship between rehabilitation motivation and rehabilitation outcome for the mentally ill. The study participants were 415 mentally ill individuals. There were 207 subjects who were high in rehabilitation motivation and 208 subjects who were low in rehabilitation motivation. The analysis revealed that insight, level of education, support from agency staff and the level of assistance from the agency were significantly associated with rehabilitation motivation for the mentally ill. The results of the analyses were as follows; First, the two groups did not reveal any statistical differences in terms of rehospitalization rate. Second, the group with high rehabilitation motivation reported significantly higher scores in the total score of functioning level than the other group. Third, the high rehabilitation motivation group reported significantly higher scores in the total score of quality of life scale than low rehabilitation motivation. Fourth, compared to low rehabilitation motivation group, high rehabilitation motivation group reported significantly higher score in the total score of occupational exploration efficacy scale. These results indicated that high in rehabilitation motivation has a positive impact on the mentally ill people's functioning level, quality of life, and occupational exploration efficacy. Implications of the research findings were discussed.
This study was performed to develop a new and integrated group psychotherapy based on the existing research results on psycho-social intervention programs for improving the quality of life of breast cancer patients, and to verify the efficacy of the program. 30 breast cancer patients participated in this integrated group psychotherapy and 23 control group members are also included in this study. The major contents of this program are composed of cognitive-behavioral therapeutic factors, supportive-expressive factors, and interpersonal relationship improvement factors. We implemented this program to breast cancer patients who are treated at the National Cancer Center in Ilsan, from March, 2004 to March, 2005. One treatment session continues for 120 minutes and it is performed during total 12 weeks. The purpose of this study is to validate if this group psychotherapy program results in the improvement of quality of life, decrease of emotional distress and improvement of the immune function for the breast cancer patients. And we would like to know if the therapeutic effects continues for some long period. The main results of this study are as follows. First, therapy group members demonstrated significant improvement of quality of life, decrease of negative emotions such as interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and improvement of immune function compared with control group members. Second, most of these effects continued until 6 months after the termination of the program. And there are very small differences in the control group between pre-test, post-test, and follow-up tests. In summary, we can conclude that this integrated group psychotherapy for the breast cancer patients is effective to improve quality of life, to decrease negative emotion and to increase the immune function for the breast cancer patients for some long period.
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between shyness and depression, and possible moderating or mediating effects of social support and sociotropy. It was attempted to examine whether each personality-interpersonal variables including shyness, sociotropy, social support predict depression. And the moderating effect and mediating effect on the relationship between shyness and depression were tested, for each sex groups. In result, shyness, sociotropy, social support from friends predicted depression significantly, but social support from families didn't. And the mediating effects of social support from friends and sociotropy were significant in both groups, and so were the interaction effects of shyness×siciotropy in female group and shyness×social support in male group. Path analysis revealed that shyness-depression relationship is mediated by sociotropy and social support from friends in both male and female group and the direct effect between shyness and depression was significant in only male group.
This study examined how role conflict, multidimensional perfectionism, and family/spouse support are associated with mental health and role satisfaction among working mothers. In a sample of 123 office working female who were mothers of one or more preschoolers and kindergarteners, variables examined using correlation, stepwise regression and partial regression. In results, three domains of role conflict were associated with psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety and somatization and with marital, parental, and job dissatisfaction. Particularly high family-work spillover predicted depression, anxiety and marital dissatisfaction, and high work-parenting spillover predicted depression, somatization, and job dissatisfaction. Multidimensional perfectionism was neither related to negative psychological symptoms nor role dissatisfaction except for influence of self-oriented perfectionism on job satisfaction. Self-oriented perfectionism act on as positive striving. Support of husband and family members was not a mediator, but a predictor variable directly influencing on working mothers' mental health and satisfaction. High support of husband was associated with low depression, anxiety, and somatization, and high satisfaction of all role domains.
The purpose of this study is investigating psychological factor on stop gambling of pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling variables were investigated to relapse pathological gamblers and non-relapse pathological gamblers. Psychological factors on stop gambling were examined from relapse pathological gamblers and non-relapse pathological gamblers. The results of this study may be summarized as follows: First, pathological gamblers were higher obsessive gambling passion, harmonious gambling passion, suppressive coping style, reactive coping style, depression, anxiety, gambling attitudes and beliefs, thrill motive, avoiding motive, monetary motive, amusement motive, irrational gambling belief, family related stress, social skill related stress, economy related stress, self-health related stress, family loading related stress and gambling drive than problem gamblers and social gamblers. Problem gamblers were higher family cohesion, family expression and family conflict than pathological gamblers. Second, gambling relapse group were higher family expression, avoiding motive, social skill related stress and gambling drive than non-relapse group. Gambling relapse group were lower family conflict, consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, helping relationship, stimulus control, counter conditioning, reinforcement management, self-liberation and social motive than non-relapse group.
The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between negative affect including depression, anxiety, anger, and adolescent's somatic symptoms, and the moderating effect of emotional expressiveness and self-concept. The measures used to assess these effects with a sample of 342 middle and high school students, included Korean Version of Children's Somatization Inventory, Revised Korean Version of the Center for Epidemiologic - Depression Scale, Korean State-Trait Anxiety inventory, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire, and Korean Version of Offer Self-Image Questionnaire-Revised. The results showed that anxiety, depression, and anger were correlated with somatic symptoms significantly. Depression was most correlated with somatic symptoms in both gender. In the case of females, anxiety was more correlated with somatic symptoms than anger, while in the case of males, anger was more correlated with somatic symptoms than anxiety. In the case of females, body image was highly correlated with somatic symptoms. The results from multiple regression analysis showed some gender differences. That is, in the case of males, depression and anxiety affects the experience of somatic symptoms and emotional expressiveness moderates in this process. But in the case of females, the moderating effect of emotional expressiveness was not significant. Gender difference in body image appeared too. In the case of males, moderating effect of body image was significant, while, in the case of females, this effect was not significant. Self-image related with family functioning moderated between anxiety and somatic symptoms. The moderating effect of self-confidence was not significant in both gender.
This study investigated role of memory beliefs(memory efficacy, memory controllability) in the relation cognitive activity and memory performance in healthy older adults. Memory performance was assessed by verbal memory, face memory, logical memory and verbal fluency. Frequency of daily cognitive activity was used to evaluate cognitive activity. Participants were 101 healthy older adults in senior welfare center. The simple effect model assumed that memory beliefs, cognitive activity influence memory performance independently. The perfect mediated model assumed that memory beliefs influence memory performance by mediating cognitive activity. At last, The partial mediated model assumed that memory beliefs not only influence memory performance by mediating cognitive activity but also influence on memory performance directly. The results showed that the perfect mediated model was superior to two alternative models. Finally, we discussed the limitation of this study and the directions of future research
This study aims to assess the utility of Rorschach test in detecting of sexual abuse, and the differences of psychological aftereffects according to demographic datum and abuse characteristics. Participants were forty-five school-aged girls that identified for sexual abuse and thirty-three school-aged psychiatric outpatients without sexual abuse history. Their Rorschach responses were scored on Comprehensive System(Exner, 1993), and Special scores were obtained. In addition, the Trauma Content and Trauma Content Index(Mor, AG, An, Bl, Sx, TC/R)(Armstrong & Loewenstein, 1990) were used. In result, it could not discriminate sexually abused children from nonsexually abused psychiatric patients. Repeatedly abused children showed significantly more depression, negative self image, impairment of body image than episodic abused children and their nonabused counterparts. And, there were significant differences according to types of perpetrators. Strange perpetrator group was revealed more severe impairment than acquainted perpetrator group. Both abused group and clinical group were higher special score's positive rates than American normative data on Exner and Weiner(1995). In summary, Rorschach test provided important informations about psychological aftereffects due to sexual abuse, but it couldn't sufficiently/effectively discriminate between sexually abused group form nonabused psychiatric patients. The implication and limitation are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the anxiety sensitivity known as a major mechanism of panic disorder may be divided into dual factors, one being somatic sensitivity, the other being catastrophic interpretation. For this purpose, we modified the anxiety sensitivity index-revised(ASI-R) into two-step rating, somatic sensitivity in the first step and cognitive interpretation in the second step, that can reflect the dual factors. In study 1, we compared panic group and somatization group with control group(each 30 subjects) selected from 500 college students. As predicted from dual factor hypothesis, in the first step rating of somatic sensation, the somatization group exceeded the panic group. However in the second rating(catastrophizing), the panic group did not exceed the somatization group. In study 2, panic patients and somatoform disorder patients(each 30 patients) were compared with 30 normal controls. In the somatic sensation factor, the result of study 1 was replicated, and in the catastrophic interpretation factor, the predicted difference was revealed. That is, in the catastrophic interpretation the panic patients were higher than somatoform disorder patients. These findings support the validity of dual factor hypothesis which says that although panic disorder and somatoform disorder share two-factor structure, panic disorder may be dominant in catastrophic interpretation and somatoform disorder may be prominent in somatic sensation. The dual factor theory may build a conceptual bridge between anxiety sensitivity research and Clark's cognitive model of panic disorder. In clinical settings, it will also contribute to the differential diagnosis and therapy of panic disorders.
This article reports 2 studies examining whether social concerns dimension of anxiety sensitivity(AS) can be empirically differentiated from fear of negative evaluation(FNE), whether it is best conceptualized as belonging to the domain of AS and/or the domain of negative evaluation sensitivity(NES), and whether it is a unique predictor of social anxiety. In Study 1, we used joint exploratory factor analyses with Korean versions of Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised(ASI-R) and Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (BFNE) in a sample of university students(N = 319). Items from the ASI-R loaded onto factors representing the 4 AS constructs such as social concerns and items from the BFNE loaded onto a single factor labeled FNE. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analyses(CFA) of the pooled items from Korean versions of the ASI-R, the BFNE and the Speech Anxiety Thought Inventory-Subscale 2 in another sample of university students(N = 353) were performed. The results of CFA indicated that a hierarchical factor model based on Zinbarg and Barlow(1996)'s study fitted the data adequately and was superior to the 3 alternative models. Additionally, the social concerns dimension predicted social and speech anxiety symptoms, respectively, after controlling for depressive symptoms and the other dimensions of AS. These findings suggest that the social concerns dimension of the K-ASI-R represents a NES factor more strongly than an AS factor as well as something distinct from FNE, and that it is a unique predictor of social anxiety.
This study revised the Korean Personality Inventory for Children(KPI-C) to develop the Korean Personality Rating Scale(KPRC) and was conducted to standardize the KPRC. The care takers of preschool children, elementary students, middle school students, and high school students(N=2639) administered the KPRC. Internal consistency of subscales is between .65 and .89. A correlation coefficient between test and retest is .42~.80 (N=65) and difference between the two is not significant. We investigated the factor structure of the KPRC. The results showed that the KPRC has three factors: internal personality problems, external behavior problems, and development problems. This study confirmed that the KPRC scores of subgroups are different according to gender and school year in order to settle the norms and investigated whether each subscale of the KPRC can screen children and adolescents who have psychiatric problems. As a result, t-test revealed that there are significant differences between male and female subgroup in anxiety, somatization, and hyperactivity scales. Also, there are differences between preschool, elementary, middle school and high school students in almost all scales. Logistic regression analysis showed that the KPRC is able to screen psychiatric problems related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder, Autistic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
There were many complaints to the K-WAIS among clinicians for 1) too low IQ scores in the young subjects and too high IQ scores in the old subjects, 2) too large differences of IQ scores among age categories, and 3) being impossible to analysis the scatters. In this study, the KWIS and the K-WAIS norms were examined to decide whether these complaints were justified or not. Such variables as raw scores, scaled scores, within-group variabilities, and sample sizes of two norms were investigated. In the result, it was suspected that the K-WAIS had serious problems for standardized IQ test and clinicians' distrust was based on reality. The causes of the validity problems of the K-WAIS were searched and resolutions were suggested.
The Dysfunctional Beliefs Test(DBT) is a 70-item self-report inventory, which has a hierarchical structure with three first-order factors (negative social self-concept, excessive demand for others approval, and negative belief of others and social relations) and a single second-order factor(Cho, 2004; Cho & Won, 1999). In this study, to construct a short version of the DBT, Rasch Rating Scale model was applied to the three sub-dimensions of the DBT in a sample of undergraduate students(N = 571). Results showed that 6-point rating scale was more appropriate for the DBT than the 7-point scale used originally. And, for each of the three dimensions, based on item fit and item difficulty indexes estimated from Rasch model, 12 items were finally selected for a short version of the DBT. Finally, the utilization of the short version of the DBT as well as the limitations of this study were discussed.