The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of problem-solving group therapy for bullies and victims. Eight bullies and twelve victims were selected as an experimental group through K-MPNI, and eleven bullies and eight victims in the waiting list group were used as a control group. The problem-solving group therapy consisted of eight sessions. The first step was to build an emotional and physical relationship with bullies and victims, to recognize the negative effects of bullying through an exclusion experience, and to create self-awareness of the students' interpersonal patterns. The focus of middle step was to train the steps of interpersonal problem-solving skills, while each subject was expected to think about how to cope with bullying as a defender. The last part of the program was to practice it in real-life and to train a communication skills. The result of this study was divided into two groups. In victim group, the frequency nominated by peers for being bullied and the victimization frequency reported by self were decreased. Indeed, their emotional and behavioral problems were reduced. Both assertive and aggressive response to bullying situation were increased. In bullying group, the frequency nominated by peers for bullying was decreased. In contrast, the bullying frequency reported by self and their emotional and behavioral problems were increased. Both assertive and aggressive response to bullying situation were increased. In conclusion, the clinical implications and limitations of this study, and also the further study were suggested.
This study was conducted to develop a stress management group psychotherapy based on the abroad research results and the depth interview with diabetic patients to verify the efficacy of the program. 22 diabetic patients were participated in this program. This program consisted of eight sessions, 120-min and composed in two parts. One is the diabetes-education focusing on general facts about the diabetic disease and feedback of the self-monitoring of blood glucose. The other is the progressive muscle relaxation with deep breathing for relieving psychological stress. The dependent variables were fasting glucose, HbA1C, perceived stress, efficacy and practice of self-management, emotional maladjustments. According to pre-post-follow comparison, the stress management group psychotherapy was associated with a significant reduction in HbA1C, state-anxiety, trait-anxiety and a significant improvement in excercise practice. But fasting glucose, perceived stress, efficacy and practice of self-management except exercise, depression were not a significant changes. These results suggest that the stress management group psychotherapy is effective in improving and maintaining glycemic control. It is supposed to develop a procedure for improving motivation in patients and to apply to type 1 patients and peoples with diabetic complication as well.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of attention improvement training on the cognitive function of the schizophrenics. the subject of the investigation was 18 the schizophrenics diagnosed by DSM-Ⅵ. They randomly were assigned into either the attention improvement training group or control group by 9 persons and then, were administered in pretest-posttest design. the cognitive function was evaluated by K-WAIS and K-FENT(Kims Frontal-Executive Function Neuropsychological Test). And each subtest of K-WAIS was classified Memory, Concept Formation, Visual Organization, Visual-Motor Coordination, and Orienting by the method of Rapaport. In the result of this study, there was significant improvement in Visual-Motor Coordination and Orienting in the attention improvement training group. However, there was no significant improvement in Memory, Concept Formation, Visual Organization, executive function. This result partly supported that the damage of attention is based on the other cognitive functions and suggest that Memory, Concept Formation, Visual Organization and executive function are functions of more then high dimensions to be demanded more intensive and continuous attention improvement training to improve this functions together. Finally, the meaning and the limitations of the study, and the suggestion of the future study were discussed.
An association between adult attachment and marital satisfaction has been well documented. However, relatively few studies have examined processes by which adult attachment affects marital satisfaction. The present study tested the hypothesis that dyadic perspective taking and conflict resolution efficacy mediate the association between adult attachment and marital satisfaction. Data from samples of married males(N=150) and females(N=130) were used to test the hypothesis. Male and female completed surveys assessing their adult attachment, dyadic perspective taking, conflict resolution efficacy, and marital satisfaction. For males and females, the results indicated that Anxious and Avoidant dimensions of adult attachment predicted marital satisfaction significantly. Dyadic perspective taking and conflict resolution efficacy partially mediated the association between these two dimensions and marital satisfaction. Namely, High levels of Anxious or Avoidant dimension were associated with marital dissatisfaction to the extent that it is associated with low levels of dyadic perspective taking and conflict resolution efficacy. This findings of this study suggest that counselors or clinicians might help them by improving perspective taking and conflict resolution efficacy.
This study was to investigate whether parents' positive attitude to child-rearing perceived by their adolescent children 431(226 boys, 205 girls) has moderating of emotional-verbal abuse by parents, that has occurred since childhood but not recognized by the child, on psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent. The findings are as follows. First, parents' use of rejecting words was found to have a significant effect on their teenage children, and parents' use of threatening verbal abuse to have a non-significant effect. Second, parents' verbal abuse was found to have a significantly aggravating effect on social withdrawal of their adolescent children, and a highly lowering effect on the self-esteem. Third, The result showed that the parents' positive attitude reduces their adolescent children's tendency of social withdrawal which was originally caused by verbal abuse, and enhances the self-esteem which was once diminished. Thus, this study suggests that although verbal abuse by parents which is frequently occurring within families but not recognized as a social problem hampers healthy adolescent development, a positive change can still take place depending on the parents' attitude toward parenting perceived by their teenage child.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the attention mechanism differed among the attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) subtypes. Forty-one children who met the criteria for ADHD-Inattention type (ADHD/I), and 44 who met the criteria for ADHD-Combined type were eventually selected to participate in this study. Forty-four children from a local elementary school who did not meet any of the criteria for ADHD were also included in this study as the control group. This study explored the attention mechanism in the ADHD subtypes. The attentional mechanism in ADHD/C and ADHD/I was examined using the covert orienting of visuospatial attention task and the executive inhibition task. Compared to ADHD/C group, the ADHD/I group showed a more severe deficit in the movement as well as a higher disengagement in covert visuospatial attention. However, the ADHD/C group showed an executive inhibitory deficit. Such results indicate that these two ADHD subtypes have two distinct attentional mechanisms.
This study attempted not only to evaluate neuropsychological function and dysfunction of different types of dementia, but also to investigate the accuracy of neuropsychological tests in differentiation of each group. Two demented groups, mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) group and mild subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) group (all of whom had SVD due to small vessel disease), and normal aging control (NC) group participated in this study. Each group consisted of 24 participants and were matched on age, gender, and education level. Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery was administered to each participant. The findings were as follows. Demented groups (AD and SVD) performed significantly worse than NC group in most subtests of neuropsychological battery. Within the demented groups, AD group performed significantly worse than SVD group in Korean-Boston Naming Test (K-BNT), and they also showed more deficits than SVD group in recognition score of Seoul Verbal Learning Test (SVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT). SVD group performed significantly worse than AD group in most subtests measuring frontal functions, and they also showed more deficits than AD group in Digit span test. Discriminant analysis indicated that overall percentage of correct classification was 93.1%. SVLT recognition score highly correlated with Function 1 which discriminates demented groups from NC group. Function 2 discriminates between AD group and SVD group. K-BNT was the most effective discriminant for AD group, and phonemic fluency index of Word fluency test was the most effective discriminant for SVD group. Based on the results obtained, implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study has attempted to investigate the cognitive insight in schizophrenic patients. Specifically this study examined the relationships between cognitive and clinical insight, and between cognitive/clinical insight and neuropsychological functions in schizophrenic patients. For the measurement of cognitive and clinical insight, Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) were administered, respectively. The frontal functions were evaluated by Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WCST), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWA), Trail Making Test (TMT) and d2 test. The schizophrenic symptoms were measured by The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and K-WAIS was administered to measure IQ. Fifty schizophrenic patients participated in this study. The results showed a significant correlation between BCIS and SUMD. There were associations between self-reflectiveness subscale of BCIS and TMT, part B response time, between self-confidence subscale of BCIS and COWA (letter)/concentration index of d2 test/ estimated IQ, and between SUMD and TMT, part A response time. In addition, both BCIS and SUMD were significantly associated with general pathology of PANSS. All of these results indicate that BCIS is a reliable and valid tool for the measurement of insight of schizophrenic patients, and although cognitive and clinical insight share common factors but seem to be related to the different cognitive functions.
The primary purpose of this study was to confirm alcoholics' deficit in recognition of emotional facial expression and to investigate alcoholics' feature in process of recognizing others' emotion. In order to achieve this goal, subjects were presented with 22 photographs of the facial expressions showing 6 basic emotions. The emotional facial expression decoding task(participants were asked to identify the emotion which best represents the affect expressed on the face of each photograph) were administered to the subjects. This study also examined alcoholics' bias to misunderstand happiness, sadness, surprise, and fear as anger or contempt in order to investigate the relationship of hostile perception and self-concept. The results of this study were as follows: First, alcoholics had lower scores than normal controls on the emotional facial expression decoding task. Second, the alcoholic's self-concept was more negative than normal subject and alcoholic's hostile perception was higher than normal subject. Third, alcoholic's negative self-concept was correlated with hostile perception on emotional recognition. On the other hand, normal control's negative self-concept was not related to hostile perception bias. These results demonstrate that alcoholics had a problem with the understanding of others' nonverbal emotional information and they had the feature to interpret others' facial expression hostilely. Therefore, intervention is needed on alcoholics' hostile perception bias and negative self-concept in order to manage interpersonal problems which promote relapse.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differential efficiencies of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Hutt Adaptation of the Bender Gestalt Test (HABGT) depending on the severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ninety patients with traumatic head injury, matched age and education level, were classified into the three groups on the length of the loss of consciousness and the result of brain imaging test: non-brain injured, mild to moderate brain injured, and severe brain injured group. For three groups, the Means of CDT and the four scoring systems of HABGT (the psychopathology scale, the adience-abience scale, the configurational approach, and the Lacks adaptation of the Hutt-Briskin scoring system) were compared. Additionally, the cut-off scores, efficiencies, sensitivities, specificities, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of each method were estimated for three groups as well as being compared the relative diagnostic efficiencies with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve. As a result, there were significant differences between the non-brain injured group and the severe brain injured group for the scores of the CDT and the four scoring systems of HABGT, but not the mild to moderate brain injured group and the non-brain injured group. All methods significantly differentiated the severe brain injured group from the non-brain injured group, but those differential efficiencies were lowered between other two groups. The most efficient methods for detecting the severity of TBI were the CDT, the psychopathology scale, and Lacks adaptation of the Hutt-Briskin scoring system. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
The present study was presented to develop and validate a shame scale which is based on Korean words. The Korean Shame Scale-61(KSS-61)was constructed by using the 61 words which is gathered by Cho (unpublished). In study 1, the KSS-61 was administered to 222 undergraduate students and the results were as follows. The KSS-61 was analyzed by 4 factors, the first factor was mortification, and the second factor was shyness, the third factor was self-consciousness, the last factor was humidity. Four factors had a good internal consistency except for 4th factor (humidity factor). The items of the 4th factor showed low item-total correlation. So, in study 2 The Korean Shame Scale-53(KSS-53)was constructed by the 4th factor being removed in the KSS-61, and administered to 905 undergraduate students. The results was as follows. First, factor analyses of the KSS-53 revealed a three factor solution (Shyness, mortification, and self-consciousness) which had good internal consistency. Second, the items of the first and second factors had good consistencies in comparison to previous studies. However the many items of the third factor (self-consciousness) were changed in comparison to the study 1, therefore the third factor was thought to be unstable. Third, KSS-53 showed high negative correlation with L, K, S and positive correlation with K scale in MMPI-2. And also it had high positive correlation with social discomfort scales such as Si, and SOD. And KSS-53 was positively correlated with anxiety and depression scales(Pt, ANX, FRS, OBS, D, DEP etc.) and was negatively correlated with the externalizing and acting-out scales(Pd, ASP, Ma, RC9). And KSS-53 had lower correlations with somatization indices(Hs, HEA). In considering all results, KSS-53 was thought to have considerable reliability and validity. Some limitations and issues were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Depressed Mood Response style Questionnaire(DMRQ) and to examine its validity. This study was consulted to examine characters in a number of groups using different response styles and the influence of response style on the duration and the severity of depressive mood. The aim of study Ⅰ was to develop a scale to distinguish between functional and dysfunctional response style. Total eighty-item of preparatory questionnaire were selected from a number of response style questionnaires and were administered to 190 undergraduate students. This scale was consisted of problem solving response style, ruminative response style, mood avoidance response style, and mood regulation response style. The aim of study Ⅱ was to validate DMRQ by the study Ⅰ. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was fitted into four-factor model. As a result of the correlations analysis, the ruminative response style and the mood avoidance response style are correlated positively with depressed mood. The problem solving response style and the mood regulation response style are correlated negatively with depressed mood. As a result of the cluster analysis, the group using both rumination and mood avoidance response style shows significantly higher level of depressed mood, Somatization, Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Interpersonal Sensitivity than the low response group and the group using both problem solving and mood regulation response style. As a result of regression analysis after control the stress, the ruminative response style among those response styles explained the difference of depressed mood and mood regulation, problem solving, and mood avoidance response style didn't give any explanation.
In this study we tried to assess the psychometric characteristics of Korean version of Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills(KIMS). Factor analysis form students sample have shown that the inventory consists of 4 factors: observing, describing, acting with awareness and accepting without judgement. Reliabilities of 4 factors were good to accept and the model of 4 factors was good and fit better than one-single model based on confirmatory factor analysis. The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills(KIMS) was related with Personality(NEO-FFI) and the psychological symptoms of Symptom Checklist(SCL-90-R). From these results it was concluded that the Korean version of KIMS shows adequate psychometric characteristics and multifacets of mindfulness. It was discussed that the other clinical studies about mindfulness supports contents validities of the KIMS, but the operational definition for two subscales of describing and accepting without judgement should be evaluated continuously in a following study.
In this study, 435 high school students were recruited and classified into the four distinct groups: depressive-conduct problem group, depression group, conduct problem group, and control group. In order to study the group differences in recognition, regulation, and expression of emotion, all participants were administered with the Mood Awareness Scale (MAS), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Ambivalence Over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ). The results were as follows. The depressive-conduct problem group and the depression group showed lower emotion recognition levels than the control group. The depressive-conduct problem group appeared to have the lower level of cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy than the control group. The depression group was found to have more conflict between expressing and suppressing of both positive and negative emotions than the control group. There was no group difference between the conduct problem group and the control group. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.