The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of social competence program in the clinical setting. Subjects were school-aged children who were diagnosed as various disorders with low social competence. The treatment group consisted of 12 boys and 7 girls, and the control group consisted of 17 boys and 5 girls. The results were the followings: The treatment group showed higher increased communication skills rated by clinicians than control group. But other areas didn't show significant difference between two groups. Besides the treatment group showed some decrease in the self-control rated by children and the assertiveness rated by teachers in contrast to parent's evaluation. The result showed that social competence program in clinical practice setting failed to demonstrate convincing evidence of improvement in some areas. But improvement of communication skills were considered as treatment effect. Lastly, the clinical implications and limitations of this study, and the further study were suggested.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on the reduction of caregiving burden, depression, and anxiety of the primary caregivers of persons with dementia in comparison with a control group. The cognitive-behavioral intervention program was developed by Lee and Youn(2005). The program consisted of 3 parts; psychological education, stress management, and coping skills. 31 primary caregivers were recruited in Y and S hospitals in Gwangju and Chonnam area and divided into 2 groups i.e Intervention Group(n=15) and Control Group(n=16) with the homogeneous characteristics of the demographic traits and the severity of persons with dementia in activities of daily living skill, memory problems, and behavior problems. The study also investigated the long-term effect(3 month) of the intervention program. Study took 3 groups proceeded one after another because there were not sufficient persons at the same time from June 2004 to March 2005. All the caregivers participing in the study responded to the same questionnaire 3 times such as, before the intervention(pre), after the intervention(post), and 3 month after the intervention(follow-up). The data was analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA, paired t-test and t-test. There was a significant reduction in caregiving burden, depression and anxiety in the intervention group, compared with control group at post treatment and follow-up after 3 months which indicated the continuity of intervention effect. However, in the control group, there was no changes during the sametime. The conclusion of the study was that cognitive behaviour intervention can have significant benefits to caregivers of persons with dementia. In the last part of the study, the suggestions, the limitations, and the direction of the further study were discussed.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigated the differences of cognitive encoding among DAT(Dementia of Alzheimer's Type) patients' according to their educational level. In order to achieve this goal, subjects were presented categorizable list of words or objects under three different encoding condition; verbal, visual-spacial, motoric encoding. As a result of this research, the DAT patients have less memory perform than normal old people. And people who had lower level of education have less memory performance than who had higher level of education. Moreover, there was no difference between normal group and DAT group using memory ability in motoric encoding method according to the level of educational. But, in terms of verbal encoding and visual-spatial encoding methods, people who had more education have more memory ability. The present results suggested to the possibility of different education effect on the encoding methods.
The effects of poverty status, gender and life stress on psychosocial adjustment of adolescents were evaluated. Self report measures of depression and externalizing behavior problems at 2 time points 1 year apart and their life stress for the 1 year period between the two assessment points were obtained from adolescents in a middle school located in an area with heavy concentration of low income families. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of data from 336 adolescents(162 boys and 174 girls) who completed both assessments revealed that effects of poverty status and stress were different depending on gender and type of adjustment measure. For depression at time 2 after controlling for depression at time 1, significant main effects of gender and life stress were obtained, but only the main effect of life stress was significant for externalizing behavior problems at time 2 after controlling for time 1. Gender × Stress interaction was significant for depression and Poverty Status × Gender and Gender × Stress interaction were also significant for externalizing behavior problems. Girls, compared to boys, were more vulnerable to life stress and poverty status.
This study examined the characteristics of automatic thoughts and irrational beliefs related specially to dysfunctional anger as compared with depression. Participants consisted of 213 clients visiting the counseling centers in the university. Participants completed several self-report measures assessing primary/secondary anger thoughts and irrational beliefs and trait anger and depression. Partial correlations controling for anger or depression were computed to investigate the degree of cognitive content-specificity of anger and depression. And participants were classified four groups according to the level of anger and depression (anger/depression, anger, depression, control group). Four groups were compared in the level of primary/secondary anger-thoughts and irrational beliefs. The main results were: 1) Derogation of others/revenge thought of secondary anger-thought were specially associated more with anger than depression. 2) Hypersensitivity on disregard and unfairness of others among irrational beliefs was exclusively associated with anger, while Self-downing was exclusively associated with depression. 3) Anger/depression group showed the highest level in primary/secondary anger thoughts and irrational beliefs among four groups.
This study examined the influences of the adolescent‘s negative automatic thoughts on the internalizing and externalizing problems. And it also tested whether negative automatic thoughts are broadband specific features that distinguish internalizing disorders from externalizing disorders, and are narrowband specific features that distinguish depression from delinquent problems. The study sample was 1982 adolescents(916 boys and 966 girls) from junior and high school, and they completed self administered questionnaires such as K-YSR, CES-D and LDQ. The regression analysis showed that the externalizing problems as well as internalizing problems were predicted by the negative automatic thoughts in linear and quadratic terms. But it showed the negative automatic thoughts had much more explanations on the internalizing problems. Both the internalizing only and comorbid with externalizing problem groups reported significantly more negative automatic thoughts. And both the depressive only and comorbid with delinquent problem groups reported significantly more negative automatic thoughts. These showed that the negative automatic thoughts are narrowband specific as well as broadband specific features in adolescent's psychological disorders.
The present study attempted to identify the guarded paranoia, and the self-concept, the other-concept, and the attributional styles of the guarded paranoia compared with those of the frank paranoia. In Study 1, the MMPI Pa, L, K scales, the Paranoia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Self-Other Concept Scale, and the Social Reasoning Questionnaire were administered to 56 persecutory deluded patients. Based on the MMPI Pa scale and Naiveté subscale, eight guarded paranoid patients and 10 frank paranoid patients were selected. The guarded paranoia showed higher scores on L and K scales, and reported more positive self-concept and lower depression than the frank paranoia. These results were supported by the cluster analysis including all of the 56 patients. In Study 2, guarded paranoid tendency group and the frank paranoid tendency group were selected from 271 college students. The guarded paranoid tendency group showed higher L and K scores and lower depression, and reported the most positive self and other-concept compared to the other groups. These results were similar with those from the patient groups. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of deterioration of somatization by depressive mood state. It was examined whether induced depressive mood state affects self-focused attention, somato-sensory amplification, somatic attribution, and experience of somatic symptoms. Subjects were 134 college students and data of 83 students were analyzed. The results showed that somatized individuals showed higher self-focus than normal control participants after sad mood induction. Somatized individuals showed more somato-sensory amplification than control participants. Females showed the same result according to group, but males didn't show such result after sad mood state was induced. Males didn't differ in somato-sensory amplification according to different mood states, but females showed more somato-sensory amplification in sad mood state than positive or neutral mood conditions. Subjects attributed to somatic causes in sad mood state more than positive or neutral mood conditions. In the case of females, somatized individuals attributed to somatic causes more than normal control participants, however, males didn't show such result. Somatized individuals experienced more somatic symptoms than normal control participants and females showed higher tendency of somatic symptoms than males, after control of pre-experiment level of somatic symptoms. Further analysis showed that in the case of males, somatized individuals experienced more somatic symptoms than normal control participants in sad mood state, but in the case of females, somatized individuals did so in positive mood state. The implications for treatment of somatization and limitations of these results, and suggestions for future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of feedback during social interaction on predicted anxiety, predicted performance in individuals with social phobia and non-patient control. 20 individuals with social phobia were administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for social phobia by a trained graduate student interviewer. Non-patient control group were 20 control college students. To establish interrater agreement, a second clinician independently rated a random sample selection of ADIS-R interviews. Interrater agreement was good (Kappa = .80). All participants completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale(SADS), Fear of Negative Evaluation-Brief(B-FNE), Social Performance Scale(SPS), Social Interaction Anxiety Scale(SIAS). The participants participated in two 5-min “getting acquainted” social exchanges with two assistants. After an initial interaction with one assistant, participants were shown the observer's “ratings and comments” which either framed the presence of positive social cues or the absence of negative social cues. They then rated state anxiety, predicted anxiety and performance in the upcoming second interaction, as well as their perceived valence and accuracy of feedback. After they participated second social interaction with another assistant, they rated state anxiety again. The results were as followings; first, regardless of feedback conditions, individuals with social phobia predicted higher anxiety and poorer performance for the upcoming interaction. Second, during two social interactions, the state anxiety of individuals with social phobia was reduced relative to non-patient control group regardless of the conditions of feedback. Third, individuals with social phobia accepted positive feedback less than non-patient control group. The implications for future research are discussed.
The Digit span and the Spatial span test are neuropsychological tests most commonly used for the evaluating short-term memory. As short-term memory capacity is stable in normal aging process, the unusual decrement of the span measures could signify pathological aging, such as the dementia of the Alzheimer's type(DAT). This study was conducted to examine the demographic variables contributing to the span performance, and to obtain normative data for the elderly Korean population in the Digit span and the Spatial span. Education and age were associated with all span measures, and literacy was associated with the Digit span performance. Mild DAT patients obtained lower scores in the Spatial span test, whereas no significant difference was found between the normal group and mild DAT patents in the Digit span test. These results suggest the Spatial span impairment could be a good early indicator for the Alzheimer's disease.
The purpose of this study was to present the Korean MMPI-2 Standardization process and provide psychometric properties of the Korean MMPI-2 via comparisons with American data. The normative sample of the Korean MMPI-2 was selected based on 2000 Korean Census data and found to be representative of Korean population in terms of geographical region, place of residence, age composition, and education level. Raw scale scores were converted to appropriate T scores (uniform and linear T) using Korean norms. Less variability in skewness across uniform T scores for the clinical and content scales indicated that uniform T scores are more percentile comparable across scales than the linear T scores. When raw scores are converted to T scores using American norms, mean scores were very elevated, with an average of one standard deviation separation between Korean and American samples. Item endorsement differences between Koreans and Americans were also large, The internal structure of the MMPI-2 basic scales showed that both for the three-factor and the four-factor solution, Korean men and women showed better convergence than American men and women. Item endorsement differences between Koreans and Americans were large, but endorsement differences between Korean men and women were very similar to those between American men and women. Test-retest and internal consistency results indicated that the stability and internal consistency of MMPI-2 scales were comparable with results obtained in American normative samples. Behavioral correlates for the MMPI-2 clinical scales derived from the spouse ratings were informative concerning the validity of the Korean MMPI-2 clinical scales. In sum, these initial findings provide promising results regarding the cross-cultural equivalence of the Korean MMPI-2.
The purpose of this study was to provide information about the Korean MMPI-A Standardization process and psychometric properties of the Korean MMPI-A via comparisons with American data. Translation process of the Korean MMPI-A was divided into two parts: The items of the Korean MMPI-2 that are common to the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A were first adopted, and then the items that are unique to the MMPI-A were submitted to back-translation, pilot studies, and committee discussions. The normative sample of the Korean MMPI-A (775 boys and 759 girls) was selected based on 2000 Korean Census data to be representative of Korean adolescent population in terms of geographical region, place of residence, grade level, and sex. Raw scores were converted to appropriate T scores (uniform and linear T) using Korean norms. Mean Korean adolescent T-scores on the MMPI-A validity, clinical, and content scales all fell within one SD of the U.S. adolescent means. These T scores were much less elevated than those obtained by Korean college students and Korean adults. Item endorsement differences between Korean adolescents and American adolescents were also much smaller than those between Korean adults and American adults. Gender-related item differences for Koreans were very much similar to those for Americans. The internal structure of the MMPI-A basic scales revealed that Korean boys and girls showed better convergence than American boys and girls.Test-retest and internal consistency results of the Korean MMPI-A were comparable with the results obtained in American adolescent normative sample. Behavioral correlates for the MMPI-A clinical scales derived from the peer ratings were informative concerning the validity of the Korean MMPI-A clinical scales. These findings were considered to provide promising results regarding the cross-cultural equivalence of the Korean MMPI-A.
The purpose of this study was to explore dimensions of executive function and development of executive function(EF) in 8-year-old to 12-year-old children. One hundred on children performed eight EF: Go no Go, Children's Color Trail Test-2(CCTT-2), Tower of london, Maze, Digit span, Digit plus test, Stroop, Local-global test. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded three interrelated factors, that is labelled working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The scores of EF incresed with age and differences between the grades were statistically significant. These data provide initial developmental standards and indicates that EF improve throughout childhood.