In this study, the effects of cognitive behavioral group therapy which focused on stress and repetitive thought were investigated for undergraduate students with high levels of evaluative concerns perfectionism. Half of the thirty two undergraduate students who reported high levels of evaluative concerns perfectionism were assigned to the group of cognitive behavioral therapy and the other half assigned to the waiting control group. Eight sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy were administered. The number of undergraduate students who completed the assessment at termination were 12 in the cognitive behavioral therapy and 16 in the waiting control group. The results of the study were that life stress and daily stress levels, worry and rumination scores, anxiety and depression levels of the cognitive behavioral therapy group were significantly lower than those of the waiting control group. On the basis of these results, it was confirmed that cognitive behavioral group therapy which focused on stress and repetitive thought is effective in the intervention of anxiety and depression for undergraduate students with evaluative concerns perfectionism. The significance and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study was carried out to investigate relationships among depression, self-esteem and interpersonal problems in adults with ADHD tendency, and to explore several sub-clusters within the ADHD group, and to compare the differences among the sub-clusters. To accomplish these purposes, we 1) classified participants into ADHD tendency and normal groups using Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Korean(CAARS-K), and compared the group difference in child and adult ADHD subscale, depression, self-esteem and interpersonal problems, 2) examined relationships among these scales using correlation, factor and multiple regression/correlation analyses, 3) identified several sub-clusters within the ADHD group using a K-means Cluster Analysis with depression, self-esteem and interpersonal problem scales, and compared the differences among subgroups in several aspects. The results indicated that 1) participants with ADHD tendency showed prominent problems in depression, self-esteem and interpersonal problems, 2) the cluster analysis revealed three sub-clusters (externalization, internalization and adaptation). Results of ANOVA with these subgroups indicated that the internalization sub-cluster showed the characteristic of elevated depression, lowered self-esteem, and social withdrawal and coldness, whereas the externalization sub-cluster showed more aggression, control-dominance and over-intervention.
This study examined the relationship between the abilities of facial affect perception and neuropsychological functions in schizophrenic patients. In particular, this study investigated whether the observed facial affect deficit in schizophrenic patients reflects the facial perception deficit or affect perception deficit, and whether the facial affect deficit is related to the specific cognitive impairment or it is the secondary deficit of the generalized cognitive impairment. Twenty schizophrenic patients and twenty normal controls participated. For the measurement of the abilities of facial affect perception, facial affect discrimination and identification tasks were administered, and the facial recognition task was administered as the control task. The comprehensive neuropsychological tests were administered for the evaluation of executive function, verbal/nonverbal memory and attention. There was no significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of facial recognition task, however, the schizophrenic patients showed significantly worse performance on the facial affect discrimination and identification tasks compared to the normal controls. Although the patients showed impaired performance in all cognitive areas evaluated in this study, the perseverative error response of WCST and immediate recall score of RCFT were the predictors of the performance on facial affect discrimination task, and the score of spatial test predicted the performance on facial affect identification task. These results indicate that impairment of facial affect perception in schizophrenic patients reflects the impairment of affect, and is related to the specific cognitive dysfunctions such as impairments of mental flexibility, nonverbal short-memory and spatial attention.
This study aimed to examine effects of general cognition and social cognition variables on chronic schizophrenics' interpersonal function in ward. For this purpose, we evaluated symptoms, general cognitive abilities and social cognitive abilities of 23 chronic inpatients with schizophrenia and these variables' relationship to interpersonal function in ward was investigated. BPRS-E, Korean-Auditory Verbal Learning Test(K-AVLT), Social Behavior Sequencing Task(SBST), and Korean-Social Cue Recognition Test-Revised (K-SCRT-R) were administered to each patient and interpersonal function was measured by Independent Living Skill Survey. Pearson correlation showed that interpersonal function in ward was not correlated with BPRS-E and SBST, but significantly correlated with K-SCRT-R and delayed recognition in K-AVLT. To examine to what extent these variables explained interpersonal function, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Result showed that intention cue perception in K-SCRT-R solely explained 25% of the variance of interpersonal function in ward. Finally, bootstrap analysis was conducted to examine if social cognitive abilities mediated between general cognitive abilities and social function in ward. Result showed that K-AVLT was significantly mediated by intention cue perception of K-SCRT-R in its effect on interpersonal function. Implications and effective intervention methods for chronic schizophrenics' rehabilitation were discussed.
In case of dual-pathway model which integrated the diet theory and negative mood theory of bulimic behaviors, it used inappropriate negative emotion assessment tools to explain the bulimic behaviors. And it didn't consider the perception or anticipation of negative emotion regulation. This study testified the extended dual-pathway model using a well developed emotion assessment tool based on systemic emotion sampling and including the perception of negative emotion regulation. One hundred and ninety nine female university students were participated in this study and they completed the questionnaire about the sociocultural pressure and internalization of ideal body, body dissatisfaction, negative emotion experience, perception of negative emotion regulation, anorexic behaviors, and bulimic behaviors. Based on this data, three models were compared by Structural Equation Modeling(SEM). The results showed that a model which proposed anorexic behaviors and negative emotion affected directly on bulimic behaviors had good model fit indexes. The negative emotion which was assessed by a well developed emotion assessment tool had effect on bulimic behaviors, but the path from negative emotion experience to perception of negative emotion regulation was not significant. However, another model which proposed the mediation effect of negative emotion regulation between negative emotion and bulimic behaviors had a reasonable model fit indexes. So there was a need for future study to understand the role of negative emotion regulation. The limitations of this study were discussed with suggestions.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether women with history of childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for future sexual revictimization and what are the risk factors of sexual revictimization. The participations in this study can be classified into three groups: no abuse group, single-incident abused group(childhood sexual abuse or adulthood sexual abuse), revictimized group(both childhood sexual abuse and adulthood sexual abuse). The following results were obtained: First, women with history of childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for adult sexual victimization. Second, single abused group has more difficulty in interpersonal relationships(nonassertive, cold, socially avoidant), has more alcohol problem and dissociation tendancy and more sexual behaviour than no abuse group. Third, revictimized group has more difficulty in interpersonal relationships(exploitable, overly nurturant), shows more sexual behavior, uses more self destructive coping strategies, feels more powerless, betrayal and self-blame attribution than single-incident abuse group. The significance of this study is the first study which suggest sexual revictimization and some related factors. This study results are based on a retrospective information provided by a limited sample of college students. Therefore it needs to be cautious to generalize this findings.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aggression and anger induction on perception of facial expressions. 247 high school students in the 10th grade completed scales on aggression (Aggression Inventory) and anger (State Trait Anger Expression Inventory). Based on the aggression scores, participants were divided into the High Aggression Group and Low Aggression Group. The participants were exposed to two mood induction conditions (anger induction condition and comparison condition) in which mood was induced by showing films. After watching the films, the subjects completed the anger scale and participated in the experiment. All participants watched 24 pictures of faces with positive, ambiguous and negative emotional expressions and rated facial expressions of emotion. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that the degree of aggression significantly influenced perception of emotion, but the anger induction condition and the interaction between the two were not statistically significant. Also the effect of the level of aggression on the perception of facial expressions was significant in positive and ambiguous facial expressions. The High Aggression Group rated positive and ambiguous facial expressions more negatively than the Low Aggression Group. The present study clarified the role of aggression on perception of facial expressions using facial expression as stimuli in the emotion perception task which was an efficient method for representing emotions.
Contemporary psychological theories emphasize the importance of negative appraisal of one's own internal experience and deliberate attempts to suppress his experience in the etiology and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorder. Based on them, the present study proposed a mediation model in which experiential avoidance would play a mediating role in the relationship between negative beliefs about worry and generalized anxiety symptoms. To evaluate goodness-of-fit of the mediation model, two studies were conducted with Korean undergraduate students and a structural equation modeling approach was used. In Study 1, a cross-sectional study, 367 undergraduate students completed an assessment battery consisting of the Korean versions of the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire(MCQ)-30, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ), and the Worry Anxiety Questionnaire(WAQ). The results of structural equation analysis revealed that experiential avoidance was a partial mediator in the relationship between negative beliefs about worry and generalized anxiety symptoms. Study 2 was designed to examine whether the results of Study 1 might be cross-validated in short-term longitudinal data collected from an independent undergraduate sample. 257 undergraduate students completed the Korean versions of the MCQ-30, the AAQ, and the WAQ twice at an interval of two weeks. The results of structural equation analysis showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relationship between negative beliefs about worry and generalized anxiety symptoms. Moreover, the results of multi-group analysis supported configural and full metric invariance of the partial mediational model across gender. These findings suggest that negative beliefs about worry influence generalized anxiety symptoms directly as well as indirectly, through mediation of experiential avoidance.
The purpose of this study is to develop a self-report questionnaire measuring emotion regulation strategies. The questionnaire was designed to assess emotion regulation strategies in terms of cognitive, experiential and behavioral strategies, and its reliability and validity were examined. The Emotion Regulation Strategy Questionnaire with 69 items was constructed using factor analyses on the data of 488 undergraduates on preliminary items. The ERSQ was found to measure sixteen strategies for emotion regulation: five cognitive, five experiential and six behavioral strategies. Reliability and validity of the ERSQ was supported by the results obtained from 426 undergraduates. Finally, the implications and the limitations of the study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the intelligence properties of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as applied multi-analysis of intelligence on K-WISC-III (Lee and Oh, 2007). Specifically, we compared ADHD with control group on K-WISC-III, using the highest score, the acquired score, and acquired score ratio. The result demonstrated that differences between ADHD and control group on the highest score were not significant in all subscales, verbal scale, performance scale, full scale intelligence scale, verbal comprehension, and freedom from distractibility factor on K-WISC-III (p>.05), the comparisons of acquired scores were significantly different in arithmetic, verbal intelligence, full scale intelligence scale, and freedom from distractibility factor (p<.05). And the differences of acquired score ratio were significant in information, similarities, vocabulary, digit span, verbal intelligence, full scale intelligence scale, verbal comprehension, and freedom from distractibility factor between ADHD and control group (p<.05). These findings suggest that the general intellectual capacity (achievement level) of ADHD group was decreased by deficiency of intelligence stability, while both groups was equal to highest intellectual capacity (intelligent potential).
This study is to translate and validate Korean BDI-Ⅱ, which is developed and updated by Beck, Steer, & Brown(1996) according to the criterions of DSM-Ⅳ of Major Depression. 461 female university students participated in this study. Main results were as follows; First, the reliablity of the Korean BDI-Ⅱ was good, the coffecient of Cronbach α was .80. And the range of corrected item-total correlation was .21(changes of appetite) to .53(loss of energy). Second, the exploratory factor analysis was done for 18 items, except 10, 16, 18 items less than .30 of item-total correlation. Finally 5 factors(low motivation, irritabllity and fatigue, indeciveness, pessimism and guilty feeling) were testified comprising of the Korean BDI-Ⅱ. And 1, 2 ,5 factors belong to SA factor(Somatic-Affective Factor), 3, 4 factors to C(Cognitive Factor) factor. Thirdly, the confirmatory factor analysis was done for 21 items and 19 items. SA-C model for 21 items (Beck, et. al. 1996), CA-S model for 19 items(Whisman, et. al., 2000) were testified on the fitness and economy of the model. Finally SA-C model was more economic and fit than CA-S model. This study and other studies were discussed on the similarites and differences of them, the cause, and implications. This study has advantegies of translating and validating BDI-Ⅱ at first in korea. But the number of subjects was not enough and male universty students were not included, so the problem of sex bias of sampling. In the future study, more enough and various subjects will be studied in the Korean BDI-Ⅱ validation study.
There is an increasing attention to the importance of emotion dysregulation in the development, maintenance, and treatment of mental disorders. This article described two studies examining the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale(DERS) recently developed to comprehensively assess emotion dysregulation among adults. In Study 1, the results of factor analyses of the K-DERS revealed a six-factor solution - “impulse control difficulties,” “lack of attention to and awareness of emotions,” “nonacceptance of emotions,” “lack of emotional clarity,” “limited access to emotion regulation strategies,” and “difficulties in engaging in goal-directed behavior”, respectively. In Study 2, the six-factor structure was largely replicated in an independent sample. In addition, the results revealed high internal consistency, adequate test-retest reliability over a two-week period, good convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity of the K-DERS. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the K-DERS is a highly reliable, valid measure to assess general and specific aspects of emotion dysregulation.
This study developed three web-based neuropsychological experiments to examine attention deficits in adults with ADHD. Specifically, we carried out inhibition of return(IOR), stroop, and endogenous- exogenous attention tasks to extract amount of IOR, stroop interference, and endogenous-exogenous cue effects. Then, we identified indices showing high correlations with ADHD symptom scales, and compared these indices of ADHD group with control group. As results, IOR and endogenous cue effects were highly correlated DSM-ADHD scale. In addition, we carried a discriminant function analysis with seven experimental indices to examine whether these indices can successfully discriminate ADHDs from normal control group. Result showed 100% of the cases were correctly classified when all the 20 indeices were used. With 7 selected indices, 95.7% of the cases were correctly classified as predicted. Finally, we discussed differences among tests used in this research and conventional tests.
The purpose of this study is to test the construct validity of CCQ Ego Resiliency Scale(CCQ-ERS) and the CCQ Ego Control Scale(CCQ-ECS)(Ku & Hwang, 2001) for children. 223 children of 4th grade completed RCMAS, CDI, and BIS. Their parent completed CCQ-ERS, CCQ-ECS, KPRC, and ACRS. Factor structures of CCQ-ERS and CCQ-ECS and correlations of the two scales with KPRC-ERS, BIS, and several clinical scales were examined. The results of factor analysis showed that CCQ-ERS and CCQ-ECS was measuring the concepts of ego-resiliency and ego-control respectively. Correlational analyses of CCQ-ERS and CCQ-ECS with KPRC-ERS and BIS and with KPRC clinical scales, CDI, and ACRS proved the convergent and discriminant validity of two CCQ scales. These results verified the construct validity of the CCQ-ERS and the CCQ-ECS and justified using two scales for children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intolerance of uncertainty, multidimensional perfectionism, autonomy/sociotropy, and the interactions between multidimensional perfectionism and autonomy/sociotropy on worry. A total of 278 university students completed questionnaires on worry (PSWQ), intolerance of uncertainty (IUS), multidimensional perfectionism (MPS), and autonomy/sociotropy (PSI). The data were analyzed through stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that intolerance of uncertainty, sociotropy, self-oriented perfectionism, and the interaction between self-oriented perfectionism and autonomy significantly predicted worry, in support of the hypothesis. However, socially prescribed perfectionism, and the interaction between socially prescribed perfectionism and sociotropy did not significantly predict worry. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.