The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship among the depression, purpose in life and delinquency impulsivity of juvenile delinquents, and to explore the effects of Logotherapy in juvenile delinquents. The scales used in this study were Beck Depression Inventory-Korean Version, Purpose in Life Test and Delinquency Impulsivity Scale. First, it was assumed that the depression and the purpose in life effect the delinquency impulsivity, especially the purpose in life's effectiveness is larger than depression's effectiveness. Data used in this analysis were based on a scales collected from 265 juvenile delinquents at the Jeonju Probation Center and the Goonsan Probation Center. The result of path analysis, the purpose in life was an important mediator between the depression and delinquency impulsivity. Next, participants who scored 92 or less of Purpose in Life Test among 265 juvenile delinquents were assigned to 7 in the Logotherapy Group and 7 in the Waiting List Control Group to explore the effects of Logotherapy. After 10 logotherapy sessions, purpose in life of the therapy group were increased more than of the waiting list control group, depression and delinquency impulsivity were decreased more than of the waiting list control group. Finally, the meanings and the limitations of the study, and the suggestion for the future study were discussed.
This study purposed to examine the personality characteristics of those who engage in negative rumination about social situation and to investigate the influences of post-event rumination on social self-efficacy and anticipatory anxiety. In Study Ⅰ, the Post-Event Rumination Scale(PERS) was translated and tested for reliability and validity. The scale could be divided into ‘negative rumination’ and ‘positive rumination’ components, and only ‘negative rumination’ factor proved to be significantly correlated with social anxiety. Furthermore, negative rumination was significantly correlated to the following personality characteristics: social self-efficacy, perfectionism and self-absorption. Post-event rumination can be distinguished from depression because it still showed a significant correlation with all the personality characteristics after their relations with depression were partialled out. Study II was designed to determine whether post-event rumination affects anticipatory anxiety and social self-efficacy. For this purpose, both ‘high negative-PER’ group and ‘low negative-PER’ group were distributed into two different experimental conditions, waiting condition and distraction condition. The result of this experiment showed that the negative ruminations of social performances induce the increase of anticipatory anxiety and the reduction of state-like social self-efficacy. However, the trait-like self social-efficacy was not affected by the experimental manipulation. These findings suggest that post-event rumination plays a significant role in maintaining and exacerbating social anxiety by increasing anticipatory anxiety and reducing social self-efficacy.
The present study investigated (1) the mediational effects of self-presentational expectancy in the relationship between peer relational skills and social anxiety and (2) whether degree of self-insight moderates this relationship. Peer relational skills data were obtained through self and peer reports, and the data of self-presentational expectancy, self-insight, and social anxiety were obtained through self-reports in 272 4th-5th graders and 279 8th-9th graders. Self-insight was measured by administering the private self-consciousness subscale of the self-consciousness scale, and participants whose scores fell in the upper 50th percentile formed the high self-insight group and the lower 50th percentile formed the low self-insight group. The results of the structural equations modelling were as follows: (1) the mediational effect of self-presentational expectancy on the relationship between peer relational skills and social anxiety was found both children and adolescents. (2) self-presentational expectancy mediated the relationship between peer relational skills and social anxiety in the high self-insight group but not in the low self-insight group. More specifically, high self-insight children and adolescents with initiative, cooperative, and empathic peer relational skills increases their expectancy for positive response from peers in peer interactions and such a positive self-presentational expectancy appears to lower social anxiety.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effect of perceived body importance in self-evaluation on restrained eating and bulimia behaviors. Based on the Tripartite Influence Model(Keery, van den Berg, & Thompson, 2004), the perceived body importance model of self-evaluation is constructed and model fit is identified. Sociocultural influence(parent, peers, and media), body comparison, thin-ideal internalization, perceived body importance, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and bulimia behaviors in a sample of female undergraduate (N=731) are assessed to test structural equation modeling. The result suggests that perceived body importance influence on body dissatisfaction and restrained eating more significantly and directly than dose thin-ideal internalization. As self-evaluation, the more individuals perceive body being important, the more body dissatisfaction and restraint eating are increased.
The present study investigated the differences between subtypes of social phobia in clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcome. The participants for the present study consisted of 83 social phobic patients who were classified as 51 generalized subtype patients and 32 nongeneralized subtype patients according to DSM-IV criteria. Generalized subtype patients were younger, less educated, and had shorter duration of illness than nongeneralized subtype patients. Also they were more anxious in most social situations, had more negative cognitions toward themselves and more passive avoidant behaviors than nongeneralized subtype patients. However, in somatic symptoms there were no significant differences between two subtypes. Generalized subtype patients were highly comorbid for avoidant personality disorder, were more likely to report past suicide attempts than nongeneralized subtype patients. Although the symptoms of generalized subtype patients were significantly more severe at pretreatment than those of nongeneralized subtype patients, both subtype patients improved to a similar degree over treatment. The implication and the limitations of this study were discussed, and the directions for future research were suggested.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the striking memories of high-trait anxiety subjects and repressor, who maintain their own emotional trait inside. In order to achieve this goal, each subjects conducted a perceptual identification and free recall task on threatening and non-threatening words, and the scores were compared among three groups. Results indicated that high anxious subjects reveal significantly higher priming on threat words than low anxious subjects in perceptual identification task, but the differences of free-recall between these group is not significant. In addition, repressor revealed significantly higher priming on threat words than low anxious subjects in perceptual identification task. But they didn't show significantly higher recall on non-threatening words in free recall task. This suggests that high anxiety group respond automatically to threat cues in the initial stage of information processing, but intentionally avoid negative stimulus in the later stage of information processing. Such cognitive avoidance strategy serves to exacerbate anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, it was confirmed that repressors automatically activate anxiety- relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present study provides many suggestions to the approach in the treatment of high-trait anxiety subjects and repressors.
Generalized anxiety disorder(GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) both share ‘excessive, uncontrolled intrusive thought’ as their main symptom. In order to clarify the relationship between GAD and OCD, the present study's aim is to investigate the cognitive appraisal and control strategies regarding three intrusive thoughts - worries, reactive obsessions, and autogenous obsessions. In this study, coping processes for the three subtypes of intrusive thoughts that has been experienced were tested by 174 college students. All three subtypes of intrusive thoughts were found to have importance of thought. But in two of the subtypes - worries and reactive obsessions, thoughts were important because they prevent negative events, reflect real events, and lead to actual behaviors. On the other hand, thoughts were of great importance in autogenous obsessions, because thoughts themselves were considered to be equal with actual behavior and morality. In addition, while both worries and reactive obsessions had high scores of probability and causal responsibility, autogenous obsessions had scored high on disapproval and moral responsibility. A significant difference between worries and reactive obsessions were also found, since worries were found to have higher disapproval scores and lower contingency and therefore higher control of thought. This is why confrontation strategies such as environment control has been used instead of avoidance strategies for reactive obsessions. In contrast, avoidance strategies and confrontation strategies such as social control or reappraisal had been used for worries. Emphasizing the importance of thoughts and a variety of control strategies led this study to seek out specific coping processes of worries, reactive obsessions, and autogenous obsessions.
The current study investigated the relationship between nightmare experience and mental health in a sample of 434 college students. To examine the relationship, nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, depression, anxiety, schizotypal personality, borderline personality, and life events were evaluated. The result demonstrated that higher levels of nightmare frequency associated more severe psychopathology and stress. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that nightmare distress predicted all psychopathology scores except anxiety scores better than nightmare frequency in a sample of students having experienced nightmares. Additionally, nightmare contents were compared with dream contents norm for Korean students.
This study is to propose a method to measure the score when a subject receives all scores to the level of last correct question(the highest score), the score actually acquired by a subject from the above the highest score(acquired score), the score which a subject missed from the above the highest score(failed score), and the ratio of acquired score to the highest score(acquired score ratio) in an intelligence tests within which the questions started with relatively easier ones and proceeded to harder ones, which is to integrate and analyze the above scores(Multi-Analysis of Intelligence). To examine the validity of 'Multi-Analysis of Intelligence', a social anxiety group were compared with a general group in performance of digit span test under anxiety and normal conditions.
Attention plays a critical role by allowing necessary information to enter the information processing system and to be used in guiding future actions. An ability to control attention effectively is essential for reducing errors in various cognitive tasks. Derryberry and Reed (2002) devised a twenty-item Attentional Control Questionnaire (ACQ) measuring attentional focusing and shifting. The purpose of this study is to translate the ACQ into Korean and to examine the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire. Total 523 college students (male: 277, female: 244) in Seoul participated. The reliability of ACQ was .840, and the item-total correlations ranged from .305 to .590. Factor analysis of the test items revealed that the two subscales were discriminated cleary. To test the validity of the ACQ, we examined correlations between the ACQ and various psychological constructs including impulsivity, cognitive failure, anxiety and mood repair. The range of correlations were consistent with previous studies examining similar variables. Considering the level of reliability and validity of the ACQ, it will provide a useful tool for brain imaging studies and diagnosis and treatment of attention related mental diorders.
In this study, we tested the reliability and validity of the Korean Version of Mindful Attention Awareness Scale(K-MAAS) that Brown et al had developed to measure for Mindfulness. In result, the internal consistency coefficient(Cronbach's alpha) of the K-MAAS was high (.87), correlation coefficients of item-total were to .24 from .68. The result of factor analysis showed that single factor accounted for 37.94 % of the total variance. K-MAAS was related to depression, anxiety, negatively, to self-esteem, positively. These findings suggested that the Korean Version of Mindful Attention Awareness Scale(K-MAAS) was reliable and valid scale to measure for mindful state. Finally, the implication of this study and direction for future study were discussed.
Many psychological tests including K-scale for diagnosing internet addiction(Korean version) are used in a norm-referenced format and produce scores for an individual in comparison to others. However, we believe that tests for diagnosis should be used in a domain-referenced format instead of a norm-referenced one. In the present study we attempt to emphasize on providing of test results in comparison to diagnostic criteria instead of a norm. We believe that the information of relative location on a norm can be useful for interpersonal comparison, on the other hand it does not provide any interpretation in terms of the context of a relevant domain. We present how a behavioral symptom scale in a domain of internet addiction is constructed following the logic and process of domain-referenced evaluation, and reliability and validity of the scale.
The aim of this study is to develop and validate the Korean version of the Anger Behavior-Verbal Scale which assesses communicative anger expression. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that 3 factor(Constructive Anger behavior-verbal, Justification, Rumination) model of Chambers(1999) was supported satisfactorily. Correlation analysis showed that Justification and Rumination which are two subscales of Destructive Anger Behavior-Verbal Scale were positively related to dysfunctional anger behavior and anger thought, and Constructive Anger Behavior-Verbal was positively related to anger control and rational belief. These results suggest satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity of the Korean version of the Anger Behavior-Verbal Scale.
This study attempted to examine the factor structure of a Korean version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (K-LSAS) and its diagnostic efficiency. Subjects consisted of 755 college students and 32 social phobic patients and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify situational factors provoking intensive fear in social phobia. As a result, the following 5 factors were extracted: (1) speaking, (2) doing something while being observed, (3) public situation, (4) interaction with stranger, and (5) assertive situation. The reliability and validity of K-LSAS is also highly significant among these subjects. Finally we examined the difference of score on K-LSAS and its subscales between two groups, and discussed the value of K-LSAS on accurate diagnosis for social phobia. The application to specific cutoff scores of each subscale and total score on the K-LSAS would greatly enhance the diagnostic utility for social phobia. Therefore, K-LSAS can be beneficial for clinicians to evaluate social phobic individuals accurately in order to make efficient treatment plans.