This study was to develop a multifactorial memory enhancement program to deal effectively with memory problems that healthy older adults might experience in their normal aging process. The effectiveness of the program was tested in 128 healthy elder people who lived in Seoul. The multifactorial memory enhancement program developed in this study, included three factors which were known to be effective based on previous empirical studies. The aim of this study was to examine if the multifactorial memory enhancement program would have better effects on objective memory tests and on daily memory functioning of older adults than the memory strategy training program. The results of this study were as follow. First, individuals in the multifactorial memory enhancement program showed significant improvement only in delayed face recognition test among the objective memory performance compared with the memory strategy training program and the control group, but no significant differences were found in other objective memory performance tests. Second, individuals in the multifactorial memory enhancement program showed greater improvement in daily memory functioning than those in the memory strategy training program and the control group. Third, the multifactorial memory enhancement program was demonstrated to be effective in improving the sense of memory control, cognitive activity level, and in reducing depressed mood. Overall, this study demonstrated efficacy of the multifactorial memory enhancement program in the daily memory functioning, which could contribute to promote the quality of life for older adults but not on the objective memory performance test.
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of social support and coping on the depression of widowed elderly. Participants were composed of 104 older adults, whose age range was from 60 to 80(M=71.31, SD= 5.30). For this purpose, the survey was carried out using Bereavement Stress Scale(emotional loneliness, relational strains, financial strains, role-related strains), Social Support scale, Stress-Coping Scale(dependence on religion, solving the problem, emotional effusion, passive evasion), Geriatric Depression Scale and Livelihood Stress Scale. The data were statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, stepwise multiple regression and hierarchical regression. There were statistically significant correlations between bereavement stress and depression(r = .40, p < .01.), between social support and depression(r = -.74, p < .01.). Regression analysis revealed that the financial strains were moderated by the social support. But problem-focused coping behavior aggravated depression and was not of help to the widowed. Furthermore, it was found that social support and health condition explained 65.2% of total variance of the bereaved elders' depression. These results demonstrated that social support played a crucial role in the psychological maladaptation of the bereaved elderly.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mood-congruence memory(MCM) bias of implicit memory in depressive population. Study is nonclinical and clinical group. A total of 567 undergraduate university students for nonclinical group screened with the self-report format of the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI). According to BDI score, participants were randomly assigned to two groups with high(n=27) versus low levels(n=27) of dysphoria. The sample for clinical group consisted of 20 participants who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for depression(n=10) versus normal controls(n=10). MCM bias in depression was investigated using a picture discrimination task, pictures were selected according to three levels of affective valence(negative, neutral and positive). Results showed no MCM bias in a picture discrimination task, but priming effect. These showed that priming effects of implicit memory reflect pre-learning experience. Moreover, results suggest that depressive level may have influence on mood-congruent effect, although significant difference was not in between nonclinical and clinical groups. Finally, the clinical implications and limitations of present study were discussed.
The present study investigated the Relationship among parent-adolescent communication and adolescent's self-differentiation, depression and Anxiety. Participants for this study were 882 students (middle school students: 262, high school students: 314, undergraduate students: 306). The following was the results. First, Open communication and self-differentiation showed positive correlations, but negative correlations with depression and anxiety. Whereas, closed communication negatively associated with self-differentiation and positively correlated with depression and anxiety. Secondly, There were significant differences in parent-adolescent communication, self-differentiation, depression and anxiety according to the group of ages and sex. Also, There were interaction effects, between the group of ages and sex, on the intelligence/emotion function, family projection and self-differentiation variables. Lastly, for the adolescence's depression and anxiety closed communication with the father was found to be main significant predictor. Implications of the current study and suggestions for future studies were presented.
Impulsivity is one of the personality trait in which someone tend to do things suddenly without any planning or careful consideration. In this study, we investigated the relation between impulsivity and N2/P3 component which is elicited by unexpected emotional stimulus. We used three-stimulus oddball paradigm to examine this relation. Total 50 college students (male: 24, female: 26) participated. Non planning impulsivity represented a negative correlation with peak amplitude of the novelty P3 component in both threat-stimulus and neutral-stimulus conditions. While in the N2 component, only peak latency showed a positive correlation to non planning impulsivity. These results indicate that non planning impulsivity influences on the speed of early involuntary cognitive process to the emotional stimulus and attentional modulatory capacity and speed of later voluntary cognitive process. But, with threat-related stimulus, there is no decrease in speed of early and late cognitive process, and the proper speed is maintained.
This is a study regarding the factors in job stress and psychological unstability of workers at a nuclear power plant settings. The subjects of this study were 117 workers and were measured the 7 factors in job stress and 3 categories(emotional, behavioral, and cognitive areas) in the psychological unstability. According to the results in this research, participation on decision making scores was the highest factor in job stress and the factors in psychological unstability were cognitive, emotional, and behavioral areas in the order of significance. There factors were significant deference related to the occupational accidental experience, accidental experience caused by the subject, shift-duty, however whether or not the subjects work in nuclear-related was not significant. Job stress factors without participation on decision making show positive correlation with psychological unstability, so this result draws an inference that subjects regarded participation on decision making is important in coping accident with needs about participation on decision making. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the occupational accident was significant in explaining the factors in psychological unstability on 117 subjects. Harm of environment was significant the subjects work in the nuclear-related area, role of organization was significant in both experimented occupational accident and caused by the subject. Based on results in this research, discussion was focused on the rational solution in organizational dimension and psychological intervention about release of stress.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the heterogenous(depression, anxiety, anger, somatization) symptoms in depressive disorder, and to identify whether there were the symptoms of depressive disorder depending on emotional regulation strategies and gender differences. The participants of this study were 56 patients with depressive disorders(male: 22, female: 34) who were diagnosed by psychiatric interview(DSM-IV) and structured clinical interview(SCID-I). The result demonstrated that the depressive symptoms were correlated to anxiety, anger, somatization and negative emotional regulation strategies. Especially, Self-blame and Catastrophizing were related to depressive symptom. Catastrophizing, Other-blame and Positive reappraisal showed significant correlation with anger symptoms. Somatization related to emotional regulation strategies, which it did not showed significantly. Also, This study showed that anxious symptoms were not related to specific emotional regulation strategies. The gender differences are shown in the raters evaluation, where male patients showed more depressive symptoms than female patients. But in the subjective report, female patients showed more depressive symptoms than male patients. This study not only identified heterogenous symptoms in depressive disorder but it also showed that depressive disorder is partially related to emotional regulation strategies and gender differences. Finally, the clinical implications, limitation of this study and direction for future research were discussed.
This study attempted to investigate the attentional bias and emotional change of coping strategy user when appearance-related stimuli presented. Participants were 24 female college students and divided into two groups(high-avoidance group, N=12; low-avoidance group, N=12) by K-BICSI(The Korean Version of the Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory). Attentional bias was measured by eye-tracker and analyzed the initial fixation direction and gaze duration time. Emotional change was measured by VAS. High-avoidance group indicated significantly longer gaze time to attractive stimuli than low-avoidance group did. And their feeling changed negatively when after presenting of appearance-related stimuli than before presenting. From these results, it was identified that high-avoidance group had different attention mechanism and were emotionally sensitive compared to low-avoidance group. In future studies, it will be helpful for preventing and treatment of eating disorder to measure various aspects of the cognitive mechanism and emotional change in avoidance coping strategy user.
This research aimed to investigate the stability of attentional network in the schizophrenic patient through comparison with Fan et al.(2002) and Wang at al.(2005) studies, in which they used same paradigm. Subjects were 34 schizophrenic patients. They were retested with the same measurements after 10 weeks without any intervention. Besides ANT, they were tested PANSS and Digit Span test in Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale-III. In the result, there was the interesting change between test and retest in the alerting network and the orienting network. Also, there was significant difference in the executive network, but remained still damaged level. In conclusion, the alerting network and the orienting network being proxy to automatic processing reached the normal level with only one exposure. This fact suggested that they were very unstable and not fundamental deficit in the schizophrenic patients. Also, these results provided that the precise analysis of the attention should be preceded in the cognitive therapeutic approach for the schizophrenic patients.
In this study, thirty young adults with BPD features, and thirty normal control groups were selected out of 357 college students and assessed on concept of self and others, anger characteristics, adult attachment style, and perceived parenting behavior of parents. The Personality Assessment Inventory-Boderline Features Scale(PAI-BOR), the Self-Concept Scale(SCS), the Other-Concept Scale(OCS), the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory(STAXI), the Adult Attachment Scale(AAS), the Self-report Attachment Style(SAS), and the Parenting Behavior Inventory(PBI) were administered. The results showed that self-concept and trait anger could predict BPD features. Individuals with BPD features had negative self-concept and other-concept, but no evidence could be found that they had disintegrated self and other representation. Individuals with BPD features showed more intense anger and exhibited higher tendency to suppress as well as express anger than the normal control group. Also, they showed higher levels of attachment anxiety, and greater tendency toward preoccupied/fearful attachment style. In addition, they perceived nurturing behaviors of the parents on them to be inconsistent, irrational, and less affectionate.
The purpose of this study was to explore the emotion dysregulation of college students with BPD tendency. Fifty-nine borderline-avoidant, thirty-five borderline, twenty-five avoidant, forty-three control groups were selected out of 610 college students and were assessed on intensity of negative affect, emotion regulation skill deficit, self-mutilative behavior and emotional avoidance. The results showed that individuals with BPD features had higher affective intensity, higher levels of emotion regulation skill deficit and greater tendency toward self-mutilative behaviors than other groups. And borderline-avoidant group had greater tendency toward emotional avoidance than other groups. In addition, data were analyzed through structure equational modeling to explore the mediating effects of emotional avoidance on the relationship between the vulnerability factors (intensity of negative emotion, emotion regulation skill deficit) and the self-mutilation. The results showed that the vulnerability factors affects self-mutilation only through emotional avoidance. Implications and limitations of these studies results were discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the visual-spatial working memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease patient(AD), compared to normal elderly(NE), using the Corsi block test(CBT), and to examine its clinical usefulness as neuropsychological method in the test battery for Alzheimer's patients. CBT and neuropsychological tests were administered to 20 AD patients with 20 or more MMSE scores and 55 normal elderly adults(NE). The results showed that significant mean value differences were revealed between AD and NE groups in the Digit Span(forward and backward), K-DRS, S-K-BNT, long-term delayed free recall of K-CVLT scores. Also CBT score differences were present. But as the results of the logistic regression analysis, even though the CBT was added to the other diagnostic tests for AD as K-CVLT or K-BNT, the discriminatory power of CBT fell into insignificant. Finally, the results were discussed and the implications for future studies were suggested.
This study aimed at providing normative information on administrations A and C of the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) performance in a geriatric sample with a wide range of educational levels. The test was administered to 554 elders aged 60-90 and range of educational level was from zero to 25 years. We stratified the norms by age (four overlapping tables) and education (three strata). The lowest educational group was divided by gender. This report provides a relatively large and comprehensive normative data on BVRT, which are useful for test interpretation in clinical setting and for research on nonverbal memory and constructional performance in elders.
The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale for measuring behavioral symptoms of pathological Internet use among adults. It is proposed how to use the scale for diagnostic classification of adult Internet users. The Developmental process includes initial item development, item analysis of preliminary scale, validation of 20-item scale, and setting a cutoff score for diagnostic classification. Data were collected from 1,170 adults in their 20s or 30s who are frequent Internet users. We employed a criterion-referenced approach to discriminate between normal and pathological Internet use according to a cutoff score set by 10 expert judges who work as Internet addiction specialists. As a result, the 20 item self-report scale measuring pathological Internet use was developed and reliability, construct validity and criterion-related validity of this scale were examined. Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency for this scale was 0.87. The results of exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale consists of 4 factors-inclination toward virtual reality, distraction and mood alteration, tolerance and preoccupation, and feeling guilty for Internet use. We suggested this scale as a screening tool for Internet addiction among adults and discussed the limitations of the present study and issues for further study.
This study was to test the validity of DAP as intelligence test. IQ scores of DAP and K-WISC-III of the 182 normal and clinical children aged 6-12 years were compared. There were significant positive correlations between two IQs of all participants. In comparisons of IQs of subgroups divided by IQ level and age, correlations of two IQs in the subgroups divided by IQ level were significant except in the subgroup of IQ 120 and above. Also Correlations of two IQs in the subgroups by age were significant except in the subgroup of the preschooler. The regression equations were proposed for transformation DAP IQ into K-WISC-III IQ.