This study investigated that the peer-support program for the outsiders of the bullying who can concern about the bullying and help the victims were completed and evaluated an effect on the program. This study was completed in 2 schools, and each school has an experimental class and a controled class. Experimental groups who completed the program from selecting as the outsiders in the experimental classes were 21 members and controled groups from selecting as the outsiders in the controled classes were 27 members. The peer-support program was composed of 8 sessions. The first part of the program was focused on the awareness about the bullying, various perspectives about the bullying, and increasing the empathy about the victim. The last part of the program was focused on helping behavior to the victim and improvement methods of the bullying which can be carried out in the class. The study effect was that experimental groups who participated in the program increased the concern about bullying situations. However, experimental groups did not have significant changes in the bulling situation and the helping behavior to the victim. We discussed about the suggestion of the result, the meaning, the restriction of this study and the following study.
The purposes of this study were to provide a more stringent test of the effects of video feedback on public speaking anxiety and to examine the possibility that the video feedback might be more effective for some individuals than for others, as well as the mechanism of change involved. Half of 60 speech-anxious undergraduates were randomly assigned to video feedback with cognitive preparation group, and the other half were assigned to the comparison group who engaged in neutral imagery task and watched a video with neutral scene. Participants in the video feedback group made lower ratings of their behavioral and somatic response aspects of public speaking anxiety following video feedback than those in the comparison, and this effect generalized to a second speech. Video feedback tended to have transient effect on self-perception of performance. On the other hand, any differences between the two groups on subjective ratings of neither anxiety nor overall performance were significant. The level of depression at pre-experiment significantly moderated the relationship between video feedback and pre- to post-treatment change in self-perception of performance. Changes in estimated probability of anxiety appearance were a ful mediator of treatment change following video feedback as measured on ratings of behavioral and somatic response aspects of public speaking anxiety. Finally, clinical and theoretical implications as well as limitations of this study were discussed.
Video feedback has been shown to be useful in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and cognitive preparation may enhance the beneficial effect of video feedback. The present study purported to examine the effects of depression and cognitive preparation on public speaking anxiety reduction following video feedback. 60 speech anxious undergraduate students with high and low depression were asked to present a speech before a video camera and received video feedback of their speech. Half of the participants received cognitive preparation prior to the video feedback, whereas the other half received neutral preparation prior to the video feedback. The effects of video feedback were found to be significant on all dependent measures including ratings of behavioral and somatic response aspects of public speaking anxiety, self-perception of performance, anticipatory anxiety, and likelihood/cost estimate for anxiety appearance was supported. Also, as expected, video feedback produced less beneficial effects for participants with high depression than those with low depression on most of the measures including those of anticipatory anxiety and likelihood/cost estimates for anxiety appearance. However, the cognitive preparation condition was not different from the neutral preparation condition in the effects of depression. The results provide support for conducting video feedback for public speaking anxiety in that they can extend the effects of video feedback by showing that these effects generalized to the measures of anticipatory anxiety and perceived social threat. Moreover, these findings suggest that video feedback in general is more likely to be helpful to speech anxious participants with low depression.
This study attempted to decrease delinquency of the light delinquent adolescent in middle school by performing the Problem Solving Skills Training Program(PSSTP). It was evaluated the effectiveness of problem solving skills training by measuring the degree of improving problem solving skills and decreasing delinquency with comparing the PSSTP to the Human Relations Training Program(HRTP). The data used in the final analysis were total 58 middle school students in Seoul(31 PSSTP, 27 HRTP). Programs were conducted five sessions for 5 days consecutively and one session was 120 minutes. The results were as follows: the PSSTP group showed more significant increase in the number of solutions and more significant improvement in the appropriateness of the problem solving methods than the HRTP group. One month later, in self-report delinquency the PSSTP group showed more significant delinquency decrease than the HRTP group, and boys' group showed more significant delinquency decrease than girls'. In the dysfunctional behaviors' frequency of the Teacher's Child Rating Scale(T-CRS), only the interaction-effect between groups and sex was significant. In the PSSTP groups girls showed more decreases of dysfunctional behaviors in T-CRS than boys, in the HRTP groups boys showed more decreases of dysfunctional behaviors in T-CRS than girls. In the dysfunctional behaviors' score of the T-CRS girls showed more decreases than boys. The effectiveness of the program for decreasing delinquency and the relation between the improvement of the problem solving ability and the decreasing of delinquency were discussed. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for forward study were described.
Prior studies have reported a significant correlation between negative symptoms and executive functioning in schizophrenia. We investigated whether the correlation is specific to executive functioning or reflect a more general relationship between negative symptoms and cognitive functioning. Based on PANSS Negative Scale, 36 schizophrenic patients were divided into two groups, one group with high negative symptoms (High NS group; n = 18) and the other group with low negative symptoms (Low NS group; n = 18). High NS group had a significantly low Executive IQ (EIQ) relative to Low NS group. However, the two groups did not significantly differ in Full-scale IQ (FIQ). Thus, High NS group had a selective deficit in executive functioning relative to Low NS group. These results indicate that correlation between negative symptoms and executive functioning reflects a specific relationship between the two. The specific correlation between negative symptoms and executive functioning may reflect a common pathological process, namely, frontal dysfunction.
The purpose of this study was to examine school adjustments of adolescents with abuse experience of 4 types of abuse (parental neglect, parental antipathy, physical abuse, sexual abuse) and explore protective factors which might alleviate negative effects for each abuse type. 785 high school students who lived in Seoul and Kyoungki Province completed the questionnaires assessing abuse experience (CECA-Q) and locus of control and social support. 380 adolescents reported that they had an abuse experience. It was demonstrated that adolescents with abuse experience showed significantly lower score on school life adjustment than those with no abuse experience. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that an interaction between parental neglect and social support, an interaction between parental neglect and internal locus of control, and an interaction among parental neglect, social support, and internal locus of control explained significantly school adjustment. However, the result showed that social support alone didn't moderate school life adjustment of adolescents who has abuse experience. Internal locus of control and social support were shown to play a role as protective factors only in the parental neglect type among four abuse types.
This study examined the relationships between psychological variables and internet addiction. The Daily Hassles Scale(DHS), Tellegen's Absorption Scale(TAS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List(ISEL), demographic data and internet use questionnaire were administered to 350 undergraduate and graduate students. For investigation of the relationship between psychological variables and internet addiction, a correlation and a regression are administered. Moreover, for searching internet using state, frequency analysis is administered through investigation into internet user's gender, main application, and using time of internet addiction groups which are composed of non-addictive group, risk group, and addictive group. Furthermore, the correlation between internet addiction and psychological variables is searched by main applications. As a result, risk and addictive group frequently appeared male and applications which are characterized by interaction, such as chatting, on-line game, and community. In an analysis of all the participants, internet addiction significantly correlated hassles and absorption. In the correlation analysis of different applications, there is a different result by applications. In chatting group, there is not the correlation between psychological variables and internet addiction. However, in on-line game group, there are significantly results, which are similar to the result of all the participants. In community group, there is a correlation between hassles and internet addiction. In the regression analysis, hassles and absorption are predictable variables of internet addiction. Finally, the discussion and limitation of this study and suggestion for future study were included.
The aims of this study were (a) to examine the alexithymic syndrome and coping deficits in somatization group through the Rorschach test and (b) to analyze the results in the aspects of the cognition, emotion, behavior, and stress management. For these purposes, we compared 56 somatization patients with the two normative data: Korean adult norms of Rorschach response provided by Kyung-Jin Shin and Ho-Teak Won(1991) and American those provided by Exner(1990). The results showed that somatization patients had smaller number of R, fewer M responses, lower W Sum C score, fewer blends responses, higher Lambda score and lower EA score than did comparison groups. Also, somatization group showed fewer FC responses than did American adults. These results indicated the alexithymic syndrome in somatizaion group. Besides, somatization patients had severe coping deficits: (1) EA<6, (2) COP<2, AG<2, (3) W Sum C<2.5, Afr<.46, (4) Pure H<2 were appeared in most of somatization patients and (5) Isolation Index>.24 in some of somatization patients. Finally, the results were analysed in the aspects of the cognition, emotion, behavior, and stress management. Based on these analyses, recommendations for treatment were suggested.
The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating effects and moderator effects of the self concept and the ego-resilience on the relationship between ADHD symptoms and the internalizing problem/externalizing problem in community sample. Data were collected from 717 children, parent, and teacher and were analyzed through structure equational modeling. The Structure equational modeling revealed that the complete mediation model of the self concept and the ego-resilience had superior fit indices to other model on the relationship between the ADHD symptoms and the internalizing problem. In addition, on the relationship between the ADHD symptoms and the externalizing problem, the complete mediation model of the self concept and the ego-resilience had superior fit indices to other model. Gender differences in mediating effect were statistically not significant. However, the moderator effect of the self concept and the ego-resilience was not significant. In conclusion, it is suggested that ADHD symptoms influenced on the self concept and the ego-resilience negatively, and this influenced on the maladjustment of children. Implications and limitations about these results were discussed.
In this study, we attempted to compare a trait of character between alcohol and drug dependence patients through MMPI and K-WAIS, and find out that what is the subscale and subtest discriminating between these two group. The results showed significantly higher the K scale on MMPI of drug patients than that of alcohol patients, and significantly higher F, Hs, D, Hy, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si scales in the alcohol patients than drug patients. As a result of discriminant analysis, it was Sc, K, Pa, Ma scale that well discriminated these two group. Discriminant analysis indicated that overall percentage of correct classification was 87.8%. Also, on K-WAIS, FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ and 11 subtest measures were used to analysis differences between two group. There is no significant difference between FIQ and VIQ on K-WAIS, but the PIQ of the group of drug abuse patients is so significantly high in the level of p<.05. In the consequence of each subtest, Digit span, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Digit Symbol are significantly high in the group of drug abuse and 75.5% out of all the case is accurately classified by the discriminant function. The clinical implifications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
This study investigated the similarities and differences of two narcissistic subtypes, overt and covert, in anger related emotions. The depression, anger, aggression, and hostile automatic thought were measured and compared. Also, the effect of self-concept clarity on negative emotions was investigated. The Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, the Covert Narcissism Scale, the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, the Zung Depression Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire, the Hostile Automatic Thought Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory were administered to 356 college students. Then, the covert and overt narcissists were selected by using the NPDS and CNS scores. The results were as follows: the covert narcissistic group showed lower self-concept clarity, and higher depression, hostility, hostile automatic thought of derogation, trait anger, and anger-repression than the overt narcissistic group. The overt narcissistic group showed more aggression when they had low self-concept clarity. However, the control group showed no differences according to the levels of self-concept clarity, and almost all covert narcissists showed lower self-concept clarity.
This study was carried out to inspect that how much subscales of MMPI could predict rule violations in prison for inmates who committed homicide(s). As a result of Cox regression, Pd and Ma measures significantly predicted future rule violations. Inmates with low Pd score and Ma score were likely to violate prison rules when time was controlled. This trend was universal across sex and criminal career. The most interesting finding was prediction direction of Pd subscale. Generally, it is predicted that high level of Pd scale must be related to any kind of rule frictions. However, in correctional facilities, early rule violations are more likely to be observed for people who have low Pd scores. This means that rule violations in prison might not result from ‘antisocial thought’, instead, it must be expressions of maladjustment to the extremely limited living conditions of prisons.
The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic availability of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo(SCT) and attention task in discriminating ADHD subtypes. Children diagnosed as ADHD at a local hospital were recruited. ADHD was divided into two group, ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type. And children from a local elementary school who did not meet any of criteria for ADHD were also included in this study as the control group. Their Parents or teachers were asked to rate the behavior rating scale consisting of the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and SCT. The executive inhibition task and the covert orienting task were administerd to children. In Multiple Discrimination analysis, two discriminant function were produced. Function I which differentiate control group and ADHD was characterized by hyperactive/impulsivity. And function II which differentiate combined type and inattentive type was characterized SCT, commission errors, and variable of covert orienting task. Three group demonstrated 93.8% of diagnostic precision rate in behavior rating scale, executive inhibition task & covert orienting task. In cross validation, three group demonstrated 86.15% of diagnostic precision rate in behavior rating scale, executive inhibition task & covert orienting task. This discriminant function effectively and consistently differentiated three group. Finally, clinical implication and limitation of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to expand the clinical utility of CDT by analyzing aspects of CDT in patients with schizophrenia. The CDT was administered to seventy schizophrenics, fifty adult depression patients, thirty elderly depression patients, and thirty mild dementia patients. Additionally, K-WAIS(Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) was administered to schizophrenics and adult depression patients, and CDR(Clinical Dementia Rating), and MMSE-K(Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean) were administered to elderly depression patients and mild dementia patients. The results of this study were that the difference of CDT total scores among these four groups was significant statistically. In the error type analysis of CDT, schizophrenic patients showed higher frequency even than mild dementia patients in <big size figure><all numbers in closure figure><conceptual error><spatial and planing error>. It was thought that CDT has ability to measure schizophrenics' cognitive deficits in reality testing, visuo-spatial function, cognitive flexibility, planning, and executive function. These results confirmed that CDT has the clinical utility in differentiating schizophrenic patients as well as mild dementia patients. Additionally, the CDT score was no correlations with age, education, and verbal IQ; however, there were correlations among the CDT score and performance IQ and total IQ. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
The Hostile Automatic Thought Scale(HAT) was developed to measure hostile thinking toward others. The aim of this study is to develop and validate the Korean version of the HAT. The HAT was administrated to 419 undergraduate students for factor analysis, and 216 students among these students completed Aggression Questionnaire, StateTrait Anger Expression Inventory, Primary/Secondary Anger Thought Scale with HAT for correlation analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that 3 factor(Physical aggression, Derogation, Revenge) model of HAT was supported satisfactorily. The HAT correlated moderately with Anger-Out/In and Physical/Verbal Aggression, but did not correlate with Anger-Control. These results suggest satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity of the Korean version of the HAT Scale. The HAT seems to be a useful scale that measures hostile attitude toward others.