This study explore the MMPI-2 profiles of female college students a high risk for eating disorders. A sample of 449 female college students completed the KEAT-26 and the eating disorder screening test based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria Twenty-five women were identified as being at high risk for anorexia nervosa and were identified as being at high risk for bulimia nervosa. Thirty women were randomly selected from those students who a low risk for anorexia or bulimia, the group. Mean MMPI-2 profiles were similar between the two groups with a high risk for eating disorders. Significant differences were found among the three groups on the F, Fb, Fp scales and all the clinical scales except for Mf. The students with a high risk for bulimia significantly elevated scores on the F, Fp, Pa, Sc, Ma scales compared to the students with a high risk for anorexia. Most of the content and supplementary scales except for ASP, SOD, and APS showed significant differences among the three groups. Women with a high risk for bulimia showed significantly higher scores on the OBS, HEA, BIZ, ANG, TPA, FAM, MAC-R scales. Three of the PSY-5 scales (PSYC, NEGE, INTR) showed significant differences among the three groups. The with a high risk for bulimia significantly PSYC scores than did the students with a high risk for anorexia. The results of the stepwise discriminant analyses indicated that paranoid features, anxiety and obsession, impulsiveness, and addictive features may be important in discriminating among women with a high risk for bulimia anorexia and control. The limitations of this study and suggestions for further research are also discussed.
With the recent surge of interest in mindfulness, there is an increased need for the development and validation of assessment tools for mindfulness. This article presents three studies examining the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R), a brief self-report measure of mindfulness that captures the breadth of the construct. In Study 1, 764 undergraduate students completing the Korean version of the CAMS-R(K-CAMS-R) were randomly split into two subsamples. Using confirmatory factor analyses(CFAs), both a hierarchical 4-factor model and a correlated 4-factor model reported in previous study of the 12-item CAMS-R demonstrated a poor fit to the data of split sample 1. Then, exploratory factor analyses of the 10-item K-CAMS-R revealed a three-factor solution - “awareness,” “attention,” and “acceptance”. A subsequent CFA indicated that the hierarchical three-factor model with the correlated error between two items freely estimated provided an adequate fit to the data of split sample 2. The K-CAMS-R demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability over a two-week period. Study 2 found that the K-CAMS-R was correlated in expected ways with several other constructs and had good incremental validity in the prediction of the indices of mental health in a sample of undergraduates(n=219). In Study 3, significant changes in levels of depression and positive affect were reported in a sample of 17 undergraduate or graduate students after completing the Korean version of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program(K-MBSR). The K-CAMS-R total and 3 subscales demonstrated sensitivity to change following the K-MBSR. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the K-CAMS-R is a reliable, valid instrument for assessing mindfulness.
The dual cognitive mediation model (Seo & Kwon, 2005b, 2005c) assumes that primary anger-thoughts and secondary anger-thoughts may mediate sequentially between irrational beliefs and aggression. The present study verified the dual cognitive mediation model for 50 adolescents patients and 209 undergraduate-students clients, using the regression analysis method of Baron and Kenny (1986). The results were: 1) primary anger-thoughts mediated partially between irrational beliefs and secondary anger-thoughts and 2) secondary anger-thoughts mediated perfectly between primary anger-thoughts and aggression. These results support the dual cognitive mediation model and suggest that secondary anger-thoughts seem to be the most proximal factor in the cognitive process of aggression provocation. This suggests an anger management program based on the dual cognitive mediation model can be used for adolescent patients.
In this study, we measured implicit and explicit attitudes about sexual violence in sex offenders via the Implicit Association Test (IAT), in order to identify any differences between sex offenders and ordinary adults, and to reveal any relationships between offenders' implicit and explicit attitudes toward same. The sex offender group was made up of pedophile first offenders. Measurement results of implicit attitudes of sexual violence between the sex offender group and the control group suggests that sex offend IAT shows tendency and pedophile IAT has difference significantly. This suggests that, in contrast to the controls, the sex offenders had a distorted understanding of sexual violence and pedophilia. The more positively the sex offenders accepted rape, the more attempts they had made to commit sexual violence and the more past experience they had with sexual violence. From these results, we may be better able to predict a sex offenders' distorted understanding of sex by measuring implicit rather than explicit attitudes. These results also show that there is a possibility that such offenders will commit repeated sexually violent acts, because implicit attitudes are not easily changed.
In this study, we empirically investigated early maladaptive schemas in subjects with eating problems to help identify the underlying origin of such problems. First, we identified groups of subjects having anorexic tendency(AN), bulimic tendency(BN), restricting bulimic tendency(RBN) and normal group from 450 female college students. The results, derived using the Young Schema Questionnaire(YSQ), indicated that the eating disorder groups had higher scores than the normal group did and, among the eating disorder groups, the RBN group had higher scores than did the AN or BN group on YSQ scores. In detail, among the 3 eating disorder groups, there were no significant differences with regard to mistrust/abuse scores. On the other hand, the AN group showed more maladapted scores than the BN group did with regard to abandonment, subjugation, while the RBN group had the most maladapted scores of all in these areas(i.e., BN<AN<RBN). In fact there was no significant difference between the BN group and the normal group with regard to subjugation scores. This suggests such schemas are more closely associated with the AN tendency than with the BN tendency. Though scores pertaining to enmeshment, emotional inhibition and insufficient self-control were more maladapted in BN than AN and most maladapted in RBN(AN<BN<RBN), these differnces were not statistically significant. Nevertheless, this suggests the possibility that these 3 schemas may be more closely associated with the BN tendency than with the AN tendency. We concluded by not only discussing the possible causality between eating disorders and maladaptive schemas, coping style on maladaptive schemas, and limitations of this study but presenting suggestions for future studies.
This study evaluated the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on emotion regulation in students. After 8 weeks of MBCT modified by the cognitive theories about emotion (depression, anxiety, anger), the following effects were observed in subjects: nonjudgmental acceptance of mindfulness increased emotional intelligence reduced depression and reduced anxiety. These effects continued through 4 weeks follow-up. Visual inspection for continuous assessment within sessions showed that awareness, emotional intelligence, depression, and anxiety improvedfrom the second session, but nonjudgmental acceptance did not show improvement until the sixth session. This result indicates that MBCT was effective for improving emotion regulation in students, and it could potentially work for various populations and different psychological disorders. In this study, we also discussed the therapeutic mechanism of emotion regulation in MBCT.
The Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA) was developed to measure the acculturation of immigrants settling in Canada. The purpose of the current study was to develope and validate a Korean version of the VIA, in order to measure the acculturation of defectors from North Korea who settle in South Korea. Data were collected from 70 North Korea adolescent defectors. Reliability, assessed by Cronbach' α, was .63, .80, .82 for the full scale, the North Korea acculturation subscale and the South Korea acculturation subscale, respectively, which confirm the Korean VIA's reliability. Item refinement resulted in a 16-item version of the North Korea defector acculturation scale because 4 items showing an item-subscale correlation lower than .40 were eliminated. A two factor structure model exhibited a reasonable fit on the basis of overall fitness criteria (CFI = .865, TLI = .830, RMSEA = .080) acquired by using the confirmatory factor analysis. The Korean version of the VIA showed a statistically significant correlation with acculturation-related variables, North Korea defectors' acculturation strategy type and belonging to North Korea results. However, the Korean VIA did not show a significant correlation with self efficacy, which confirm discriminant validity. These results suggest satisfactory construct validity. Finally, criterion validity was supported by using the group that had a South Korea public school education and group that didn't. Limitations and implications of this study were discussed.
The current study presents an integrated executive function model that explains the interrelationships among deficits in two executive functions (working memory and inhibition), ADHD symptoms, and two conditions (reading difficulty and substance abuse) that are commonly comorbid with ADHD in adulthood. The validity of the integrated model was tested using structural equation modeling with an adult sample consisting of consecutive referrals to a university-based research project. The final model suggested that working memory problems directly contribute to reading difficulty as well as to inattentive symptoms in adults. Direct contributions of inhibition to ADHD symptoms were not supported. However, ADHD symptoms had direct and indirect contributions to substance abuse symptoms. Current findings suggest the crucial role of working memory in the manifestation of ADHD symptoms and comorbid reading problems and also suggest ADHD symptoms' contribution to the development of adult substance abuse. These findings were interpreted as generally supporting the hypothesis of the developmental heterogeneity of executive function profiles associated with the manifestation of ADHD symptoms and comorbidities in adulthood.
The purposes of this study were 1) to identify the effects of attitude toward recovery on quality of life among persons with psychiatric disabilities, and 2) to test whether the individual effects of relevant variables (i.e., psychological symptoms, psychological functions, social support, and economic status) on quality of life variable are mediated by attitude toward recovery. Results from a stepwise regression analysis (N = 520 persons with psychiatric disabilities) with quality of life as a dependent variable showed that attitude toward recovery explained 43% of the total variance in quality of life. Economic status, psychological functions and social support explained 8%, 8%, and 2% of the total variance, respectively. Psychological symptoms were not a significant predictor. Based on previous studies and these results, a hypothetical model (Attitude toward recovery mediating effects model) was developed. This model predicted that the effects of psychological symptoms, psychological functions, social support, and economic status on quality of life would be mediated by paticipants' attitude toward recovery. A covariance structural analysis produced favorable goodness of fit indexes (GFI = .915, AGFI = .905, NFI = .921, NNFI = .934, CFI = .940) except for the chi-square value (χ2 = 900.95, p<.001). Analysis of the path coefficients in this model showed that each direct effect of attitude toward recovery, psychological functions, and social support on quality of life was positively significant, but the direct effect of psychological symptoms on quality of life was not significant. Also, the results showed that each indirect effects of psychological symptoms, psychological functions and social support on quality of life were significant when mediated by attitude toward recovery. However, the indirect effect of economic status, when mediated by attitude toward recovery, was not significant. In conclusion, the proposed attitude toward recovery mediating effects model was supported by the results of the current study. Implications of the study and applicability of the results were discussed.
This study investigated the effect of anxiety, depression, coping style, and perceived social support on posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) symptoms in fire-fighters. A sample of 396 fire-fighters working in Seoul and Daegu provided demographic variables and job characteristics, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS), Impact of Event Scale-Revised(IES-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), Ways of Coping Checklist(WCC), and Social Support Scale. The results indicated that the incidences of full PTSD and subsyndromal PTSD in the subjects were 11.1% and 10.4%, respectively. Subjects with full PTSD showed more state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression, and a higher incidence of passive coping style than did those without PTSD symptoms; These subjects also showed more trait anxiety and depression than did subsyndromal PTSD subjects. Those with subsyndromal PTSD showed more state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression than did subjects without PTSD symptoms. In addition, the results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that trait anxiety, depression, and passive coping style were consistently significant predictors of PTSD symptoms. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
This study examined the effect of Logotherapy on faith maturity and mental health. In the study, we tested the effectiveness of Logotherapy were tested by conducting Logotherapy group with Christian students. As Dr. Frankl suggested, the Logotherapy programs are consisted of the three values on pertaining to the search for meaning and the five core existential meanings questions to regarding what it means to be a human being. The former is comprised of three values for creativity, experience, and attitude, and the latter are concerned with five meanings of life and death, pain, sin, work, and love. The treatment group(n=8) and control group(n= 9) were evaluated(pre/ post/ follow-up) for intrinsic religious orientation, positive religious coping, meaning of life, mental health, self-esteem, social support and social avoidance & distress. The treatment group showed improvement on the given measures. During the follow-up evaluation periods conducted one month and three months later, the improvement was found to have continued. The implication of this study is that Logotherapy is useful for students who seek their meanings of life, faith maturity, and positive religious coping. Finally, the limitations of this study and the directions of future study were discussed.
This study attempted to examine the factor structure of the Korean-language version of the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale(SOCRATES-K). The study sample consisted of 455 male and 281 female binge-drinking college students. An exploratory factor analysis of SOCRATES-K identified two factors, Taking Steps and Recognition-Ambivalence, that showed good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that two correlated factors provided the best fit for the data. There was less evidence to support a three-factor structure. The results were compared to previous studies and the reasons for discrepancies were discussed.
The purposes of this study were to examine the differences between depressive and normal elderly persons' emotional experiences and coping styles and to confirm the effects of emotional characteristics on subjective well-being in old age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The participants were 99 depressive and 201 normal elderly persons. The results showed that the depressive elderly experienced more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions than the normal elderly did. However, members of both groups optimized their affective characteristics by maximizing positive, and minimizing negative, emotional experiences. With regard to coping styles, both groups often used self-defensive coping, but the depressive elderly used passive-dependent coping more than the normal elderly did. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that economic status, education, negative emotions, and passive-dependent coping were significant predictors of subjective well-being in normal elderly persons, while positive and negative emotions were significant predictors in depressive elderly persons. The importance of quality of emotional life and the prevention and intervention for depression were discussed with regard to the elderly.
This study used a local-global paradigm to examine whether female college students with sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms would overly focus on local aspects of stimuli and be more affected by incongruent stimuli than would normal controls. Participants were 15 sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive subjects as psychometrically defined by the Padua Inventory(PI) and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory(MOCI) and 15 controls. We employed 3 types of stimuli(congruent, incongruent, and neutral), all large global numbers made up of small, local numbers. For global and local tasks, participants were instructed to respond to the global or local levels of stimuli, respectively. Both the sub-clinical obsessive-compulsive group(OC) and the control group showed faster response time on the global task as compared to the local task. However, in the global task, the sub-clinical OC group committed significantly more errors than did the control group. No such difference was seen in the local task. In local versus global tasks, the control group showed more errors in response to incongruent stimuli, but the sub-clinical OC group did not show any such difference. Additionally, the sub-clinical OC group showed significant positive correlations between MOCI scores and response times/error rates in the global task but not in the local task. These results indicate that sub-clinical OC subjects have difficulties in processing global features and the local-biased tendency reported in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder is present even before OC symptoms are developed.
In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott(DRM) paradigm(Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995), participants are asked to learn several semantically associated word lists, to recall each list immediately after its presentation, and to recognize list words. On both recall and recognition tasks, participants often falsely recall and/or recognize “critical lures”; nonpresented words semantically associated with each list. Recently, several studies have used the DRM paradigm with trauma survivors, to clarify the features of traumatic memory. The purpose of this study was to develop trauma-related DRM lists and to provide initial benchmark data for future studies of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and false memories. Using forward and backward association methods, 10-word lists were developed around these critical lures: suicide, kidnap, fire, war, funeral, traffic accident, rape, and blood. Then, a DRM paradigm using these lists was administered to 81 college students. The results showed that participants mistakenly claimed the critical lures had been presented with frequencies of 3.7-25.9% on recall and 13.6-70.4% on recognition. These data will serve as a useful benchmark for designing experiments about false memories in PTSD patients. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research were discussed.