Dichotomous thinking(DT) refers to the tendency to judge objects, people or events in terms of extremes. DT can have psychopathological consequences. The binary conclusions drawn as a result of DT can lead to extreme reactions and maladaptive patterns of emotions and behaviours. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between DT and psychopathology using the clinical scales of the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI-2). The participants were college students assigned to two contrast groups(DT vs normal controls) on the basis of Dichotomous Thinking Index. The DT group showed lower L, K and higher F, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Ma, Si scale scores than the control group. This confirmed the expected relationship between DT and various domains of psychopathology. As predicted, dichotomous thinkers showed elevated MMPI-2 profiles and revealed higher level of intention to participate in psychotherapy. A result of particular importance is that the profile of dichotomous thinkers was characterized by the elevation of each Si and Ma scale(Spike 0, Spike 9) which implies contradictory self images. The correlations between DT and the various MMPI-2 scales were investigated as a preliminary exploration of future researches. A conceptual analysis of the correlations found in the present study suggests that psychopathology of DT may be categorized into five domains: 1) global dysfunction, 2) negative affect, 3) anger and alienation, 4) elation and impulsivity, and 5) disorganization of thought.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between schizophrenia patients and normal controls in terms of emotional expressiveness, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and personality type. The instruments used for this study included the Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire(EEQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire(AEQ), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ). The results were as follows. Firstly, emotional expressiveness and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness were much lower in the schizophrenia subjects than in the normal controls. For the normal controls, the lower emotion they expressed, the higher was their ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. However, for the schizophrenia subjects, the higher emotion they expressed, the higher their ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. An additional finding was that for the schizophrenia group ambivalence over emotional expressiveness increased with severity of symptoms and the degree of negatively expressed emotions. Secondly, the schizophrenia group showed higher levels of psychoticism and introversion than the normal controls. For the normal subjects, scores on the extraversion/introversion dimension were related to emotional expressiveness with high extraversion associated with high emotional expressiveness and high introversion associated with low emotional expressiveness. For the schizophrenia patients, the higher their extraversion and the lower their psychoticism scores, the higher were their scores for emotional expressiveness. However, the higher their introversion and psychoticism scores, the lower were their emotional expressiveness scores. Further findings were that, for normal subjects, the higher their introversion and neuroticism scores, the higher was their ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. For the schizophrenia patients, the higher their neuroticism scores, the higher was their ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The present study examined the effects of response styles and essay writing treatments on changes in depressed mood and the contents of essays. The participants were 64 college students, who were divided into either ruminative or reflective response style groups, based on their scores on the Responses to Depressed Mood Questionnaire. All were given false negative feedback about their performance on a vocabulary test to induce a moderately depressed mood. The participants were then randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions designed either to focus on the negative feedback or to distract from that by writing essays. The results indicated that main effects of both response style and essay writing treatment on improvements in depressed mood were not significant. However, while in the failure experience-focused condition there was no difference in mood improvement between the two response style groups, there was a marginally significant difference in the neutral condition with the ruminative response style group showing greater improvements in depressed mood than the reflective response style group. A content analysis of the essays in the failure experience-focused condition indicated that the reflective response style group showed both problem-solving and positive contents more frequently than the ruminative response style group. While both of the groups produced a high frequency of negative content, the differences in frequency of negative content were not significant. Finally, the limitations and implications of the present study were discussed.
While there is a growing accumulation of independent studies to show effectiveness of anger management programs with institutionalized juvenile delinquents, there is a dearth of clinical trials on the therapeutic effects of laughter therapy(LT) in these areas of research. Hence, the specific aim of this clinical trial was to compare the differential therapeutic effects of laughter therapy(LT) and cognitive behavior therapy(CBT) on anger reduction and management in institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Ninety male participants (mean age 20.12 yrs) were recruited from the Cheonan Juvenile Correctional Facility and randomly assigned to either an integrative psychotherapy group with laughter therapy(IPG+LT) (n=45) or a cognitive behavior therapy group(CBTG) (n=45). Both groups attended a total of 10 sessions(120 minutes a week) over a 10-week period. The IPG+LT program entailed abdominal breathing laugher, anger control laugher, pain control laugher, and Taichichuan laugher skills. The CBTG program included anger management training, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness-based stress reduction(MBSR), self-control hypnosis, acceptance and commitment therapy(ACT), forgiveness therapy, psychodrama(role play), and interpersonal problem solving. The outcome measures used were the Primary Anger Thought Scale, the Secondary Anger Thought Scale, the Anger Expression Scale(AX), the Anger Behavior-Verbal Scale(AB-VS), the Hostile Automatic Thought Scale(HATS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale(SES), and the Revised General Attitude and Belief Scale (R-GABS). While both interventions were associated with improvements in anger control and management over the duration of the study, post-hoc analysis indicated that IPG+LT was superior to CBTG. In conclusion, these novel findings suggest that institutionalized juvenile delinquents can benefit from both LT and CBT. It is further suggested that LT might have produced more a powerful contribution to anger management than CBT by means of its higher greater enhancement of self-esteem, satisfactory relationships and motivation, and communication skills.
Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that people are motivated to derive emotional meaning from life with age, leading them to pay more attention to positive rather than negative/neutral stimuli. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in selective attention to faces expressing anger and happiness. A total of 58 subjects(28 older adults and 30 younger adults) participated. Participants saw a pair of faces, one emotional and one neutral, and then a dot probe that appeared in the location of one of the faces. Older adult's responded faster to the dot if it was presented on the same side as a neutral face than if it was presented on the same side as a positive face. There were no significant attentional biases in younger adults. In contrast to previous Western findings, older adults, but not younger Korean adults, looked away from happy facial expressions. This suggests that Korean older adults do not show attentional preferences for positive stimuli. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for further research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive coping strategies on the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism and anger expression. A sample of 238 undergraduate students(127 men and 111 women) completed Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Two mediating models were hypothesized in this study. In the first model, it was assumed that adaptive cognitive coping would mediate the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and adaptive cognitive coping. In the second model, it was assumed that maladaptive cognitive coping would mediate the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive anger expression. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine the predicted mediating effects of cognitive coping. The results showed that self-oriented perfectionism directly influenced adaptive anger expression, and that socially prescribed perfectionism influenced maladaptive anger expression both directly and indirectly through maladaptive cognitive coping. Therefore, while self-oriented perfectionism increased adaptive anger expression, the mediating effect of adaptive cognitive coping predicted in the first model was not supported. However, as predicted in the second model, maladaptive cognitive coping did mediate the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive anger expression. These findings suggest that self-oriented perfectionists and socially prescribed perfectionists cognitively process failure experiences in different ways. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed with suggestions for the future research.
The purpose of this study was to develop the norms and test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL1.5-5). The selection of a normative sample for the CBCL 1.5-5 (1,232 boys and 1,201 girls) was based on data from the 2005 Korean Population and Housing Census. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and this supported that the factor structure of the original CBCL 1.5-5 can be plausibly applied to the Korean version of the CBCL 1.5-5. Reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency (.56~.94) and test-retest reliability (.67~.85). The subscales of the CBCL 1.5-5 showed high correlations with its higher-order-factors such as internalizing and externalizing problems, and this provided good evidence of convergent validity. When the CBCL1.5-5 was administered to a clinical sample (n=183) and normative sample (n=183), discriminant validity was confirmed by the mean differences on the subscales between the two samples and by Cohen's effect sizes of these differences. When differences in mean subscale scores for different age and sex groups were explored, the conclusion was that it would be reasonable to use independent norms for two age groups (18-35 months and 36-72 months) for the Korean version of the CBCL 1.5-5. The implications of using the CBCL1.5-5 in Korea both as a clinical tool and a research instrument are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate how ADS results change according to ADS assessments results and intelligence level of children diagnosed with ADHD, and how results of intelligence level and visual and auditory can show more accurate compare to ADS in analyzing diagnose ADHD. The participants were 195 clinically diagnosed ADHD children who visited the child-adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university medical center. The cognitive characteristics of ADHD children were assessed using the ADS and Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(KEDI-WISC). The findings were as follows. Firstly, showed scores on the arithmetic subtest of the KEDI-WISC showed no significant discriminant sensitivity even though this subtest is associated with the Freedom from Distractibility factor index. Due to difference between the cultural aspects of the academic environment in Korea where children are concentrating heavily in arithmetic. Secondly, the best diagnostic measure in both the visual ADS and auditory ADS scores showed that the 'standard deviation of hit reaction time'. Finally, whereas the correlations between the auditory ADS scores and the KEDI-WISC subtests were generally high, those between the visual ADS scores and the KEDI-WISC were found to be low for four of the subtests. The results also showed that children with high IQ scores obtained T scores of less than 60 on the auditory ADS, whereas on the visual ADS children obtained T scores over 60 regardless of IQ level. The clinical implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
This was a prospective study designed to test the stress generation theory which suggests that depression predicts stressful life events and to investigate the role of social skills as a mechanism of stress-generation in depression. The participants were 224 under-graduate students who completed the questionnaires about major stressful life events, depression and social skills on two occasions, one month apart. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel correlation analysis, MANOVA, and regression analysis. The results were as follows: (1) Stressful events predicted subsequent depression, and depression predicted subsequent stressful events.(2) Depressed people had more dependent events and more interpersonal events after one month than non-depressed people, but depressed people did not have more independent events than non-depressed people. (3) In terms of the three factors on the BDI, negative attitudes towards self predicted subsequent stressful life events more than the other two factors, performance impairment and somatic disturbance. (4) Although social skills in general were not shown to have moderating effects on the relationship between depression and subsequent stressful events, moderating effects were found for various sub-factors of social skills such as emotional expressivity, social expressivity, emotional control and social control. The clinical implications and the limitations of the study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to verify the validity and clinical utility of the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL 1.5-5) by demonstrating that the total and subscale scores of the checklist provide valid criteria for classifying referred and non-referred groups. The study participants were a referred group of 228 preschoolers (153 boys, 75 girls, age range 1.5-5 yrs, mean age 3.3 yrs) and a non-referred group which was demographically matched for sex and age (n=228, mean age 3.3 yrs). An ANOVA, ROC curve analysis, discriminant analysis, and odds ratio analysis were performed on the syndrome scale data obtained on the participants. The results supported the efficiency of the Korean version of the CBCL 1.5-5 in referral status screening and its clinical validity. The overall results showed that, with the exception of the somatic complaints and sleep problem scales, the sub-scales of the Korean version of CBCL 1.5-5 were effective in discriminating between clinical and non-clinical groups, and the DSM pervasive developmental problems and DSM attention deficit/hyperactivity problems scales were the most successful. The clinical cutoff-score-criteria adopted for the Korean version of CBCL 1.5-5 were shown to be statistically valid. Further studies with a larger clinical sample and more detailed diagnostic information will be necessary in order to clarify why some sub-scales were more successful than others in discriminating the referral status of the pre-schoolers. The implications of using the CBCL 1.5-5 in Korea as a clinical and research tool were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating the frontal EEG asymmetry by neuro-feedback on the approach/withdrawal motivational response, and to ascertain the frontal asymmetrical activity associated with the motivation direction. 17 right-handed participants were partially randomly assigned to receive neurofeedback training, and this training was designed to increase the left frontal activity relative to the right frontal activity (the LEFT group) or they received training in the opposite direction (the RIGHT group). 3 consecutive days of neurofeedback training was done, and this was consisted of 5 4-min sessions (a total of 15 sessions). All the participants completed the BDI-II and, BIS/BAS and the affective rating scale for the positive, negative and neutral emotionally evocative film clips at the first and last day. As a result, the individuals in the LEFT group increase their left frontal activity relative to the right frontal activity, and the and individuals in the RIGHT group increase their right frontal activity relative to their left frontal activity. Consequently, the LEFT group reported a higher BAS score and stronger affect in response to obvious emotional film clips than did the RIGHT group. There was no significant relationship between the groups and the BIS score. These results suggest frontal asymmetrical activity is related to the motivational direction and it is not related to the affective valence.
This study was performed to verify the diagnostic utility of the CBCL 1.5-5 in screening of ADHD preschoolers. The subjects were the 4-5 year old children who were enrolled in the kindergartens and day-cares in the Choong-Chung-Do region, and 361 parents participated in evaluating their children. The parents evaluated their children with various scales; the Korean Child Behavior Checklist Preschool: CBCL 1.5-5, the Abbreviated Conner's Parent Rating Scale, the Attention Deficit Disorder Evaluation Scale-Home Version: ADDES-HV, the Home Situation Questionnaire: HSQ, and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form 1.5-5: C-TRF 1.5-5. The results were as follows; First, the correlations among the well known ADHD scales(Corner's Parent Rating Scale, ADDES-HV, HSQ) and the CBCL 1.5-5 showed that most scales(CBCL 1.5-5`s, Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, Total Behavior Problems and ADHD scales) had meaningful positives correlations. In order to examine the concurrent validity of the CBCL 1.5-5, the correlations between the CBCL 1.5-5 and C-TRF 1.5-5, which teachers and caregivers use to evaluate their students, were somewhat low. Second, on the results for the discriminant validity of the CBCL 1.5-5, the ADHD group had significantly high scores than the normal group for Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, Externalizing Problems and Total Behavior Problems. Third, in screening ADHD with using the CBCL 1.5-5, the sensitivity and specificity were examined, and when raw score of 4 for the Attention Problems and the raw score of 15 for the Aggressive Behavior were set as the 90th percentile, the sensitivity and specificity were shown to be meaningful.
This study was performed to develop a scale that could predict and screen offenders’ suicidal risk level and prevent their suicide from occurring by using this scale. In the first study, the hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, suicide and self-injury variables were considered essential to the risk of suicide, and the pilot scale was composed with using them. After the pilot items were selected through binomial analysis, 267 offenders(142 males and 125 females) in ○○ women’s correctional institution and ○○ men’s correctional institution participated in the scale development. In the second study, we administered the questionnaire and we examined the sensitivity and specificity to select the offenders who were at a high risk of suicide for a total 396 incarcerated offenders in the country. The results of factor analysis help develop a scale with 32 items that focused on hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, suicide ideation and self-injury. The reliability and validity of the developed scale turned out to be appropriate. The AUC of the suicide risk screening scale was .95. So we suggest that this scale is useful for screening the suicide risk of incarcerated offenders.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and emotional disorders in terms of emotion regulation strategies. Study I examined the correlation between the Emotion Regulation Strategy Questionnaire(ERSQ) and the maladaptiveness index, including depression, anxiety and the self-esteem measure, for the undergraduate students. The results showed that 6 strategies(‘Think negatively’, ‘Blame others’, ‘Burst into negative emotion to others’, ‘Burst into negative emotion in a secure situation’, ‘Binge eating’ and ‘Be engaged in addictive activity’) are correlated positively and 7 strategies(‘Think actively’, ‘Think passively’, ‘Imagine pleasurable things’, ‘Take problem-solving action’, ‘Ask for advice or help’, ‘Meet intimate person’ and ‘Refresh oneself’) are negatively correlated with it. In study II, 31 patients with depressive disorder, 26 patients with anxiety disorder and 32 normal controls responded to the ERSQ. The results showed that participants with emotional disorders reported 6 strategies, which all turned out to be maladaptive in study I, more often than did the normal controls. On the contrary, the normal controls reported 7 strategies that manifested as adaptive in study I and ‘Accept cognitively’ more often than did participants with emotional disorders. Finally, the implications and limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to compare various aspects of emotions in ten Personality Disorders(PDs) and three Clusters of PDs. 614 college students completed the Diagnostic Test of Personality Disorders, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Affect Intensity Measure, the Emotional Expressivity Scale, the Emotion Expressiveness Questionnaire, and the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire. The results of the correlation analysis and ANOVA revealed different emotional features among the 11 PDs and among the 3 PD Clusters. The characteristics of Cluster A Among the 3 Clusters were lower levels of recognition, experience, expression of emotion and higher levels of conflict in the expression of emotion. Emotional restrictions were very high in the Schizoid PD. Cluster B revealed higher levels of recognition, experience, expression of emotion and few conflict in the expression of emotion. This showed the plentiful emotionality of the Cluster B PDs. These features were obvious in the Histrionic PD. The Histrionic PD was the only PD experiencing no difficulties in expression of emotion. Compared to Cluster B, Cluster C had lower levels of recognitions, experiences, and expressions of emotion. But the Obsessive-Compulsive PD had no restriction of recognition and expression of emotion and no difficulties in emotional expression.
The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the Restructured Clinical(RC) scales of the MMPI-2. The participants were 393 university students who completed the MMPI-2, the SCL-90-R, and the MCMI-Ⅲ. The inter-correlations among the RC scales were lower than those among the original clinical scales. The result is interpreted that the RC scales were well discriminated with each other. The result of the correlation analysis between the RC scales and the original clinical scales was that each of the RC scales excepting RC3 were most strong positive correlation with their parental clinical scales. The RC3 was negatively correlated with clinical scale 3(Hy). The RC scales were strongly correlated with the conceptual corresponding sub-scales more than the conceptual non-corresponding sub-scales of the MMPI-2, SCL-90-R, and MCMI-Ⅲ. The findings suggest that the MMPI-2 RC scales have good validity, and these scales could provide specified informations about the personality and psychopathology as compared with the original clinical scales.
The purpose of this study was to explore the MMPI-A profiles of adolescent girls who are at high risk for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The participants (818 girls) completed the EAT-26KA and the eating disorder screening test based on the DSM-IV, Twenty-four girls were identified as being at high risk for anorexia and twenty girls were identified as being at high risk for bulimia. The comparison group consisted of twenty-four girls who were randomly selected from those students who had a low risk for anorexia or bulimia. The girls with a high risk for anorexia showed elevated scores on the Hs, D, Hy, and Si scales, while those with a high risk for bulimia obtained elevated scores on almost all the clinical scales, with highly elevated scores on the F, Hy, Pa, and Sc scales. The girls with a high risk for anorexia obtained significantly higher scores on the Si, A-las, and A-sod scales than did those girls with a high risk for bulimia, whereas girls with a high risk for bulimia showed significantly elevated scores on the F, Pd, Pa, Sc, Ma, A-aln, A-biz, A-fam, MAC-R, and ACK scales compared to those girls with a high risk for anorexia. Girls with a high risk for bulimia also obtained significantly higher scores on the AGGR, PSYC, and DISC scales than did the other two groups. The results of the stepwise regression analyses revealed that impulse-related issues and introversion may be important in discriminating between the girls with a high risk for bulimia and the girls with a high risk for anorexia. The limitations of this study and suggestions for further research are also discussed.
The present study examined the reliability, validity and factor structure of a Korean version of the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-brief version (DBAS-16). The Korean version of the DBAS-16, ISI and the, SCL-90-R depression, anxiety and hostility subscale were administered too the313 undergraduate students and 213 adults in the general population. The results of factor analysis of the K-DBAS-16 revealed a 4-factor structure: “misattribution or amplification of the insomnia's causes and consequences”, “loss of control and worry about sleep”, “unrealistic sleep expectation”, and “attitude toward medication.” In addition, the results showed relatively high internal consistency, adequate test-retest reliability over a four-week period and, good convergent and discriminant validity of the K-DBAS-16. Finally,the implications and limitations of the present study and suggestions for the future research were discussed.