The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of multiple interpersonal traumas on psychological maladjustments in sexually abused children. With 275 sexually abused children(ages 4-13), we assessed contributions of cumulative of interpersonal traumas other than the current alleged sexual abuse(witnessing or victim of violent crime, physical abuse, sexual abuse, witness of domestic violence, confronted with traumatic news) on symptoms of PTSD, internalizing/externalizing behavior problems, sexual behaviors. We found a significant contribution of multiple interpersonal traumas on internalizing/externalizing behavior problems and sexual behaviors in a hierarchial regression analysis where demographic variables(age, sex), environment factor(family income, family structure), sexual abuse characteristics(severity of abuse, duration of abuse, relationship with perpetrator), and post-incident factors(disclosure, delay in help) were considered together. However, the effect of multiple interpersonal trauma experiences on PTSD symptoms was not significant. The result of this study indicate that experiences of multiple traumas must be considered when understanding psychological maladjustment following child sexual abuse. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research discussed.
It has been suggested that obsessions tend to induce negative inferences about the self. However, few if any studies have examined the relationship between the type of obsession and negative self-inferences. The present study aims to examine which types of obsession are more likely to induce negative self-inferences. 40 participants were assigned into two groups (i.e., the autogenous obsession group vs. the reactive obsession group). The two groups undertook a thought-suppression task that was designed to make the participants experience their most disturbing mental intrusions. We measured the negative self-evaluations and negative self-conscious emotions of the participants to assess the extent to which their mental intrusions induce negative self-inferences. Participants with autogenous obsessions evaluated themselves more negatively in terms of morality, dangerousness, and competence dimensions of the self, and they reported more negative self-conscious emotions after they completed the task, whereas those with reactive obsessions did not. These results suggest that the extent to which mental intrusions provoke negative self-inferences varies according to the type of obsession and that autogenous obsessions are more likely than reactive obsessions to induce negative self-inferences.
The current study examined the efficacy of positive psychotherapy (PPT) on college students with major depressive disorder (MDD). PPT intervention is aimed at increasing happiness and decreasing the levels of depression. College students with MDD were randomly assigned to PPT intervention (n = 18) or to a waiting list (n = 17). All participants completed measures before and after the intervention, as well as 1 month later at a follow-up to assess depression (CES-D), life satisfaction (SWLS), and positive and negative affect (PANAS). PPT intervention led to statistically significant enhancement in life satisfaction. These enhancements were maintained at the 1-month follow-up. These findings suggest that PPT intervention is effective in enhancing happiness.
The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Subtle Avoidance Frequency Examination (SAFE). The Korean versions of SAFE, SIAS, SPS, FNE, CSAQ, SFA, DBT, CSI, and BDI were administered to 328 undergraduate and graduate students. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three factor structure-“subtle safety behavior” “behavior aimed at avoiding or concealing physical symptoms” and “active safety behavior”. In addition, the results showed relatively high internal consistency, and adequate test-retest reliability over a 2 or 3 week period. The Korean version of SAFE was found to have appropriate construct validity with significant positive correlations with social anxiety, dysfunctional self-belief, self-focused attention, and avoidant coping strategy, but no correlation with problem-solving coping or support-seeking coping. Among the three factors, factor 1 was highly correlated with social anxiety-related measure, which suggests that factor 1 reflects the dysfunctional aspect of safety behavior. Factor 2 was found to reflect the traits of somatic symptom-related safety behavior. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Within this study we used self-reporting measures completed by 361 undergraduate students from two Korean universities to investigate the validity of Peterson and Seligman(2004)’s classification system of 24 character strengths and six virtues. The author also looked at how the 24 character strengths and virtues relate to the measure of mental well-being in 154 students from Korean universities. Using a exploratory factor analysis of the Character Strengths Test(CST), the author found that these 24 character strengths did not produce a factor structure consistent with the six higher order virtues as proposed by Peterson and Seligman(2004). Instead, the 24 character strengths were best explained by a four factor solution. When investigating individual character strengths, optimism/hope had the strongest relationship with the mental well-being. Of the four factors, Interpersonal Strengths (with social intelligence, humor, kindness, and love as indicators) had the strongest associations with mental well-being. The results have implications for understanding the structure and variability of benefits linked with particular strengths.
The current study examined the role of social connections and emotion regulation in suicidal ideation among individuals with interpersonal trauma. Based on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005), we hypothesized that two indices of social connections, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, would be associated with current and lifetime suicidal ideation. Further, we hypothesized that cognitive emotion dysregulation and impulsivity would be associated with current and lifetime suicidal ideation. Participants were recruited from community mental health centers and local shelters for victims of domestic violence and sexual/physical abuse. A total of eighty-five participants completed a set of self-report questionnaires assessing current and lifetime suicidal ideation, traumatic events, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, cognitive emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity. Results showed that perceived burdensomness, catastrophizing, and negative urgency were significantly associated with current and lifetime history of suicidal ideation. Thwarted belongingness was associated only with current suicidal ideation. Findings suggest the need for psychosocial intervention to reduce suicide risk among individuals with interpersonal trauma.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy(ACT) on evaluative concerns perfectionism, fear of negative evaluation, experiential avoidance, and self-efficacy of university students. Four hundred university students in Chonbuk province completed Multi dimensional Perfectionism Scale(FMPS), Multi dimensional Perfectionism Scale(HMPS), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale(BFNE), Acceptance & Action Questionnaire-16(AAQ-16) and Self-Efficacy Scale. Eighteen patients who selected by those scales were randomly divided into an ACT group and control group (nine each). ACT program was administered for eight sessions. All participants completed the Multi dimensional Perfectionism Scale(FMPS), Multi dimensional Perfectionism Scale(HMPS), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale(BFNE), Acceptance & Action Questionnaire-16(AAQ-16) and Self-Efficacy Scale at pre-test, post-test, and at 6 week follow-up periods. The results of this study were as follows: evaluative concerns perfectionism, fear of negative evaluation, and experiential avoidance of therapy group decreased in the therapy group more than in the control group, whereas self-efficancy increased in the therapy group. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study, along with suggestions for future study were discussed.
The present study examined the effects of a group mindfulness-based emotion regulation intervention(MBERI) on psychological health in a Korean sample of university students. Moreover, to shed light on the mechanisms of changes in the MBERI, this study proposed both emotion dysregulation and mindfulness as potential mediators of treatment changes on the basis of literature review. Forty-five participants in the MBERI group and 50 those in a psychoeducation group completed the measures of psychological health and proposed mediators at pre-intervention, after session 4, and post-intervention. In addition, participants in the MBERI group completed all of the same scales once again at 1-month follow-up. Compared to the participants in the psychoeducation group, those in the MBERI group demonstrated decreases in depressive symptoms, general negative affect, and emotion dysregulation, as well as increases in psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Early reductions in emotion dysregulation mediated the short-term effects of the MBERI on depressive symptoms, general negative affects, and psychological well-being, but early increases in mindfulness did not. Short-term reductions in emotion dysregulation were significantly associated with long-term changes in depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction. In addition, short-term improvements in mindfulness were significantly correlated with long-term changes in life satisfaction. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a group MBERI leads to improvements in university students' psychological health, which are mediated through changes in emotion dysregulation, and that some of its long-term effects may be mediated through short-term improvements in mindfulness.
The purpose of this study was to identify child and mother's temperamental profiles related to the child's internalizing and externalizing problems through latent profile analysis. A total of 282 preschoolers were recruited and their mothers evaluated children's temperaments and behavioral problems along with their own temperaments. For both internalizing and externalizing problems, four latent classes were identified: “little problem”, “average problem”, “mild problem”, and “severe problem”. Children in the severe internalizing problem class had high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and high reward dependence while their mothers had high novelty seeking tendency. Children in the severe externalizing problem class had high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low reward dependence, and low persistence while their mothers had high harm avoidance tendency. This study explicitly shows child and mother's vulnerable temperamental profiles related to child's behavioral problems, and it provides an implication for possible prevention strategies.
This study investigated the recognition and implicit memory in nonclinical schizotypics with and without obsessive-compulsive symptoms using event-related potentials(ERPs). Based on the scores of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, schizotypal-trait(n=16), obsessive- schizotypal(n=16) and normal control(n=17) groups were selected. Continuous recognition task and categorization task were administrated in order to measure recognition and implicit memory, respectively. In terms of response time(RT) for the recognition memory task, control group showed faster RTs to old than new words, whereas both schizotypal-trait and obsessive-schizotypal groups showed longer RTs to old than new words. The error rates between old and new words did not differ among the three groups. For implicit memory task, the three groups did not differ in terms of RT or error rate. In terms of the ERP results in the recognition memory task, control group showed more positive potentials to old than new words, i.e., old/new effect, in 300-500ms and 500-700ms post-stimulus, whereas both schizotypal-trait and obsessive-schizotypal groups did not show the old/new effect in 500-700ms after stimulus-onset. In addition, the old/new effect in 300-500ms interval was significantly reduced in the obsessive- schizotypal group compared with the control and schizotypal-trait groups. For implicit memory task, no significant group difference was observed. These findings suggest that college students with schizotypal traits with/without obsessive-compulsive traits have impaired recognition memory, and those with obsessive traits seem to have more severe impairment of recognition memory than those without obsessive-compulsive traits.
The present study investigated the relationships between aggression, anger-coping behaviors and happiness. Aggression consisted of four factors(Physical/Verbal aggression, Hostility, and Anger). Anger coping behaviors were classified into five factors(Rational coping, Aggressive expression, Avoidance, Emotional resolution, and Distraction). Happiness was assessed by the Satisfaction with life and the Positive/Negative affect. 387 undergraduates served as subjects. Relationships between aggression and happiness varied according to the aggression and happiness factors. Hostility showed the most negative correlation with happiness, and Physical aggression and Anger were also negatively correlated with happiness. However, when controlling for Hostility, Physical aggression and Verbal aggression were positively correlated with happiness, and Anger displayed no correlation. Hostility, Physical aggression, the Verbal aggression and Anger were positively correlated with Negative affect, but when controling for Hostility, the correlations were not significant. These results indicate the relationships between Aggression and happiness were caused by hostility. It seems that Hostility among all factors of Aggression had an especially strong effect on happiness. Among anger-coping behaviors, Avoidance was correlated with all happiness factors, negatively with the Satisfaction with life and the Positive affect, and positively with the Negative affect. The strongest predictor of happiness was Hostility in aggression and Avoidance in anger-coping behaviors. Some anger-coping behaviors(Avoidance, Distraction, and Rational coping) were significantly correlated with happiness after controling for aggression. The Implications and limitations of this study are also discussed.