The purpose of this study is to investigate measurement equivalence between CPGI(Canadian Problem Gambling Index) and KCPGI, and to link scores of the two scales. To do so, we conducted multiple group analysis with CPGI data(Canadian data) and KCPGI data(Korean data) for total group, male group, and female group. Specifically, we tested configural invariance, metric invariance, scalar invariance, invariance of factor variances, and factor mean differences. We used data from 2,089 Canadians and 882 Koreans. The results are as follows. At first, configural invariance was supported. Metric invariance and scalar invariance were partially supported. However, factor variances were statistically different, although the difference was not practically large. Factor mean comparison showed that Koreans were higher than Canadians. The results of male and female groups were similar to those of the total group, although there was a little difference in the female group. Finally, we attempted linking scores between CPGI and KCPGI. As a result we could provide a conversion table between the two scale scores. Lastly, we discussed the implications and the limitations of this study.
The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of posttraumatic growth(PTG) following relational loss on character maturation and mental health. For this purpose, the PTG levels of people who experienced severe relational loss were examined, and then the effects of PTG on maturation of characters proposed by Cloninger(1987) as well as mental health such as happiness and depression were investigated. Furthermore, the mediating path of character maturation on PTG influencing on happiness was examined. The results showed that PTG was positively correlated with all three dimensions and maturation of characters, which was most closely related to the “personal strength” factor of PTG. We also found that PTG was significantly related to higher happiness and lower depression, and specifically ‘relating to others’, ‘personal strength’ and ‘appreciation of life’ factor significantly predicted happiness. Furthermore, maturation of characters partially mediated the relationship between PTG and happiness. Based on these results, the meaning of the study regarding positive changes or growth following relational loss was discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research.
This study investigated time perception in ADHD children. Twenty-seven ADHD children and twenty-five controls participated, and four tasks were administered to both groups, as follows: 1) A computerized time reproduction task (intervals of 3, 8, 13, 18, and 25 seconds, with or without distraction) to estimate time perception accuracy. 2) Neurocognitive ability tasks 3) A questionnaire for the parents to rate the time- oriented behavior of their children, including preparation and planning ahead for deadlines. 4) A questionnaire for the children to answer, which was to measure their time notion, including time orientation, sequence of time, ability to estimate duration of their daily activities, and ability to look back on their past or to anticipate their future. As the results of using 2(group)×2(distraction)×5(intervals) factorial design ANOVA, distraction effect was not different between the two groups. However, as intervals became longer, ADHD children became less accurate in time perception compared to controls. Time notion was not different between the two groups. However, time perception accuracy was related to their ability to estimate the duration of daily activities, as well as their ability to look back on their past or to anticipate their future. And ADHD children showed more difficulty in time-oriented behavior. These results indicates that temporal span in ADHD children is shorter than controls, which means they are temporal myopic. Deficit of time perception in ADHD children makes them have difficulty in preparing and planning ahead. The time perception accuracy is related to executive functions(divided attention, inhibition), working memory, and sustained attention. Time perception is not automatic process, but requires cognitive effort.
The present study aimed to demonstrate the neural mechanisms that relate to the abnormal processing of facial expressions in individuals with post-traumatic stress symptom (PTSS). In particular, we investigated each processing stage's influence on facial expression recognition in individuals with PTSS. To investigate these mechanisms, we measured behavioral performances and event-related potentials (ERPs) as individuals performed a multi-morphed facial expression identification task. Participants were divided into two groups: those with PTSS and a control group without PTSS. Participants viewed representations of fearful, neutral, and happy facial expressions. ERP results revealed that, relative to the control group, the PTSS experience group experienced enhanced P1 amplitudes (reflecting rapid detection) and attenuated LPP amplitudes (reflecting later strategic processing) for all facial expressions. The behavioral data show that PTSS experience group committed more errors and were slower at detectingfacial expressions than were the controls. The difficulties individuals with PTSS face in recognizing facial expressions are explained by abnormal processing related to sustained attention or elaborating processing deficit.
To explain the dysfunction of increased self-consciousness, this study suggested three attributes, Low Focus Control(LFC), and Low Clear Awareness(LCA), Negatively Biased Focus(NBF) as key attributes of dysfunctional self-focus, and developed the Dysfunctional Self-focus Attributes Scale(DSAS) which measures these three attributes. Using preliminary data from a sample of 415 university students, explorative factor analysis and item selection process were performed. Using the final data from a sample of 266 university students, statistical analyses including confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and correlational analysis were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis showed the three factors as predicted, and 2 weeks test-retest reliability and internal consistency were satisfactory. The three subscales of DSAS were positively correlated with rumination and depression, while negatively correlated with mindfulness. Implications and limitations of this study, and suggestions for further study are also discussed.
This research was carried out to investigate the possibility of using a shortened form of SCL-90-R, BSI-18. BSI-18 is a tool used to measure psychotic discomfort in patients. It was created by Derogatis, who took subscale three scale of nine dimensional scales(SOM, DEP, ANX) for SCL-90-R, then extracted six items for each to set BSI-18's scales. Currently, studies have not demonstrated any validation, which suggests the need for reasonable and firm data for using BSI-18. This research observed before and after 380(male=115, female=242) ex-ante and ex-post analysis students. To determine the possibility of using BSI-18 in the country, tests were carried out using BSI-18's lower scales, MMPI-2's supplementary scales(ANX, DEP, HEA), and BDI and BAI. Additionally, to confirm BSI scales' factors, three and four factors were verified. As result, four statistic factors construct validity, convergence and distinct properties were verified, and BSI's modified structures showed better form than origin. Further results were also stated.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination on depression. One hundred and seventy-nine college students participated in this study. All subjects were tested for autobiographical memory(Autobiographical Memory Test) and also a completed self-report measure of depression(Beck Depression Inventory) and rumination(Ruminative Response Scale). As the subtype of overgeneral memory might have different effects on depression, overgeneral memories were distinguished as categoric and extended memories, as positive cues and negative cues memories on the basis of previous studies. In addition, by applying a personality vulnerability hypothesis(Beck, 1993), overgeneral memories were distinguished as interpersonal and achievement-failure memories. After reviewing the relevance between variables using correlation analysis, hierarchical regression analyses were performed. The results show that; overgeneral memory and rumination were significantly associated with depression. Particularly, categoric memory, extended memory, negative cues memory, and achievement-failure memory were significant. In the interaction with rumination along with categoric memory and achievement-failure memory were significant. That is, high rumination and categoric memory, achievement-failure memory were associated with higher depression. These findings were discussed in terms of cognitive intervention on depression. Finally, the limits of the current study and suggestions for future research were described.
This study developed an optimism improvement program and verified its effects. Seligman(1990) stated that optimism is not born but instead learned. His opinion was confirmed as an effective treatment by performing The Penn Prevention Program on children with depression. This study modified and complemented this program according to Korean children, and it developed a new optimism improvement program. To verify the effects of the program developed in this study, the program was conducted on a total of 57 fifth-grade elementary school students and first-grade middle school students. Fifty-eight persons as part of a waiting list control group in the same grade as the study subjects were also prepared. The optimism level of the group that participated in the program was significantly higher than that of the non-participants. This shows that alternative solution thinking ability was the mechanism of optimism improvement. In addition, as the result of checking whether or not alternative solution thinking ability and consequential thinking ability are key mediators of optimism improvement by means of parameter variables analysis, mediator effect of alternative solution thinking ability was verified while that of consequential thinking ability was not. This study is meaningful in that an optimism improvement program was developed according to Korean culture and actual conditions. It was economical as it could be performed in a shorter time than existing programs, and subjects were sufficient enough to verify the effects of the program.
This study was performed to verify the validity and utility of the Korean Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report Version(BRIEF-SR). The Korean Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report Version(BRIEF-SR) is a self-report assessment method designed to measure the executive function of adolescents(age 11-18). A total of 272 students (elementary school students: 76, middle school students: 99, high school students: 97) participated. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to evaluate the model structure. Correlation analysis was done to verify the concurrent validity and clinical utility. In the results, the internal consistency and model fit indexes were good, and clinical utility showed a good level. However, there were limitations in the method using a self-report questionnaire. As a result, the Korean Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report Version (BRIEF-SR) may be used to measure the subjective efficacy associated with executive function rather than actual executive function.
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of belief in luck as a personal property as well as near miss which is a situational factor facilitating the expression of self-perception of luck on persistence of gambling behavior and response latency between games. Sixty-four male undergraduates classified as non-gamblers participated and were divided into two groups, high or low levels of self-perception of luck according to their BIGL(Belief in Good Luck) scale scores. The subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions, according to existence of near miss. The results show that under near miss conditions, the group considering luck as a personal trait played the game significantly more than group considering luck to be random chance. Under non-near miss conditions, the two groups showed no difference. Response latencies were unaffected by the presence of near miss or levels of belief in luck. Therefore, it seems that perception of luck as a personal and internal trait is a risk factor for expressive gambling behavior in situations when gamblers experience near miss. The limitations and implications of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between meaning of life and suicide ideation as well as the mediating effects of perceived social support and avoidance coping style in the relationship between meaning of life and suicide ideation. The subjects were composed of 240 elderly aged 60 and over(M=71.2, SD= 7.28). For this study, Elderly Meaning in Life(EMIL) Scale, Suicide Ideation Scale(SIS), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support(MSPSS), and Avoidance Coping Style Scale(ACSS) were carried out. The results of this study were as follows. First, correlation analysis showed that suicide ideation was negatively correlated with meaning of life and perceived social support while positively correlated with avoidance coping style in both males and females. Second, the partial mediation model of perceived social support and avoidance coping style showed better fit indices than alternative models in both of males and females. Based on the paths of the partial mediation model, meaning of life in males was a significant variable that explained suicide ideation. Moreover, perceived social support and avoidance coping style mediated the relationship between meaning of life and suicide ideation. In females, meaning of life was a significant variables that explained suicide ideation. However, only perceived social support mediated the relationship between meaning of life and suicide ideation. According to this study, significant variables that explained suicide ideation among older males and females aged 60 and over were revealed and thus might be useful as basic data for the prevention and counsel of older suicidal adults.
It is well-known that post-traumatic stress symptoms are associated with dysfunctional information processing of traumatic events. Until now, the role of bilateral(horizontal) eye movements, a core component of EMDR(eye movement desensitization & reprocessing), has not been theoretically clarified. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of traumatic experience and bilateral eye movements on trauma-related and neutral memory using a false memory paradigm originally developed by Deese(1959) and modified by Roediger and McDermott(1995). In order to achieve these goals, two experiments were performed. Main independent variables assessed were traumatic experience(traumatized vs. non-traumatized), eye movements(horizontal vs. vertical), and word lists(trauma-related vs. neutral). Dependent variables assessed were the correct recognition rate for studied words, the false recognition rate for critical lures, the false alarm rate for unrelated words, and the response times for each of the word lists. Participants were divided into two groups: a traumatized group who experienced a traumatic event and had at least moderate symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder(15 or above on Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; Foa, 1995) and a non-traumatized group. The results show that traumatized participants generated less correct recognition of studied words and more false alarms of unrelated words than controls(Experiment 1 & Experiment 2). Further, bilateral eye movements were associated with a slower response time to previously presented trauma-related words among traumatized participants(Experiment 2). Limitations of the current study and implications for future research were also discussed.
In this study, the self-esteem instability of overt and covert narcissists was investigated. Thirty-three overt narcissists, 45 covert narcissists, and 67 controls were selected from 345 college students. The self-esteem scale along with scenario questionnaires was administered to evaluate self-esteem instability under virtual situations where evaluative feedback was given. Lastly, to evaluate self-esteem instability in natural situations, the three groups were asked to send in a diary by e-mail detailing their major life events and self-esteem every night for 5 days. Under the context of virtual evaluative feedback, covert narcissists showed significantly higher self-esteem than the overt narcissists and both narcissistic groups showed significantly higher self-esteem compared to controls. In natural situations, although not statistically significant, narcissist groups showed a tendency of exhibiting unstable self-esteem compared to controls, and the highest instability was present in covert narcissists. The results of this study are discussed from the perspective of clinical observation and advanced research. The key findings and limitations of the present study are also discussed.