The purpose of current study was to examine the effects of evaluative conditioning (EC) on changing explicit and implicit attitudes toward alcohol in drinkers. Participants included of 18 heavy drinkers and 13 light drinkers, based on the Korean-language version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-K) and alcohol consumption. All participants were subjected to an EC, which consistently pairs alcohol-related stimuli with negative stimuli. In addition, assessment of explicit and implicit attitudes toward alcohol was performed using self-report questionnaires and the approach-avoidance alcohol Implicit Association Test (approach-avoidance alcohol IAT). According to the results, heavy drinkers showed higher scores on explicit alcohol cravings and a more implicit approach tendency toward alcohol-related stimuli than light drinkers. In addition, use of the EC resulted in successful reduction of explicit craving and implicit approach action tendency in both groups. The findings of the current study supported the effectiveness of the EC task in changing motivational and implicit attitudes toward alcohol, which is an important mechanism in alcohol abuse and relapse. Furthermore, based on the results for implicit attitudes, it can supplement the limits of socially desirability and intended bias, which are characteristics of explicit results.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the psychological mechanism of the risk and protecting factors related to suicidal ideation. A total of 401 university students participated in the current study. First, the question of whether external entrapment and negative affect have a significant influence on suicidal ideation, and whether negative affect mediates the relationship between external entrapment and suicidal ideation was examined. In addition, the question of whether the mediating effect of negative affect in relation to external entrapment and suicidal ideation is moderated by emotion coping resilience was investigated. According to the results, negative affect partially mediated the relationship between external entrapment and suicidal ideation, indicating that external entrapment not only has an indirect effect on suicidal ideation through negative affect, but also has a direct influence on suicidal ideation. In addition, such a mediating effect of negative affect appeared to be moderated by emotion coping resilience. In particular, university students with higher levels of emotion coping resilience, compared to those with lower levels, were more likely to be protected from being susceptible to suicidal ideation, even if both groups suffer from similar levels of negative affect. These results suggest that negative affect (e.g., depression, anxiety), which is well known as a significant risk factor of suicidal ideation, buffers against its pernicious impact on suicidal ideation in university students. Limitations and implications of the current study were discussed.
This study was conducted in order to examine the relationships among stress, mindfulness, anger rumination, and dysfunctional anger. Based on findings from previous studies, partial and full dual mediation models were proposed, in which mindfulness and anger rumination would sequentially mediate the relationship between stress and dysfunctional anger. We asked 424 college students to complete questionnaires, which included the Daily Hassles Scale, Mindfulness Scale, K-Anger Rumination Scale (K-ARS), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean version(STAXI-K). The results were as follows. According to the structural equation modeling (SEM), a partial dual mediation model fit the data well. These findings suggest that mindfulness and anger rumination sequentially mediate the relationship between stress and dysfunctional anger, and that stress has direct influence on dysfunctional anger. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
Reliable estimation of a psychological test norm requires a large number of samples that well represent characteristics of the population distribution. Samples used in many test norm development studies have been classified into several subgroups, according to age and years of education, for example, whose norms need to be estimated separately. However, in most of the studies, sample sizes of subgroups are not large enough for reliable estimation of norms of the psychological test under investigation. The current study explained why having a large enough sample size for each subgroup is important in test norm estimation and introduced a model-based estimation procedure that provides more reliable norm estimates than a typical norming procedure, especially when the sample size of each subgroup is less than desirable. Specifically, this procedure, under normality assumption of the test scores, uses a regression model that estimates the means and variances of all of the subgroups simultaneously. An example analysis was illustrated in order to demonstrate how to use the suggested procedure using a normative sample of Korean-version Boston Naming Test scores from 1067 normal elderlies. Finally, considerations in application of a model-based norming procedure were discussed.
The aim of the current study was to understand the developmental trajectories of children’s inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity through conduct of a short-term longitudinal study. A total of 1384 parents in two elementary schools in Gyunggi Province participated in this study: children’s inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were measured three times with five months interval; children’s temperament and parents’ behaviors were measured once, only at the first time-point. The younger children group (6 to 8 years old) included 515 participants (276 boys and 239 girls); the older children group (9 to 11 years old) included 829 participants (398 boys and 431 girls). Cohort Sequential Design and Latent Growth Curve Model were employed for analyses. The results are as follows. First, inattention showed an increase in younger children and was maintained in older children; hyperactivity-impulsivity showed stability in younger children and showed a decrease in older children. Second, regarding the predictors of the identified pattern subgroups, novelty-seeking was a positive predictor of younger and older children’s inattention and persistence temperament was a negative predictor; neglect parenting added influence in both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for younger and older children. Suggestions for future research were discussed, along with the limitations of the current study.
The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a character strengths-based positive psychotherapy on depression, life satisfaction, and quality of life among the depressed elderly. For this purpose, the positive psychotherapy program proposed by Seligman, Rashid, and Parks (2006). Which was modified by the researcher, was used. The efficacy of the revised positive psychotherapy program among the depressed elderly was compared with that of cognitive behavior therapy_(CBT). Participants in the programs included 24 elderly adults who obtained above 6 points on the Geriatric Depression Scale. They ranged in age from 65 to 82. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two programs: positive psychotherapy program and cognitive behavior therapy program. Eleven elderly subjects completed group positive psychotherapy and twelve elderly subjects completed group cognitive behavior therapy_(CBT) for 10 sessions. Geriatric Depression, life satisfaction, positive and negative affect scale, and quality of life measures were given at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1-month and 3-month follow-up. The efficacy of the revised positive psychotherapy program among the depressed elderly was compared with cognitive behavior therapy at 1-month and 3-months after the program ended. Participants in the positive psychotherapy group reported significant improvements in elderly life satisfaction, quality of elderly life, and depressive mood, which was maintained up to three months later, compared to those in cognitive behavior therapy. These results demonstrate that the changes in positive affect under positive psychotherapy are not - temporary but persistent. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that positive psychotherapy can help the depressed elderly by enhancing their positive affect and reducing depressive mood. The significance and limitations of this study were discussed.
Solitude, defined as the absence of social interaction, has both positive and negative sides. However, most previous studies have focused on its negative sides such as loneliness and social anxiety. The aim of the current study was to focus on the positive side of solitude and to examine the role of self-determination factor, which is hypothesized to lead positive experiences during solitude. In study 1, the Self-determined Motivation Scale for Solitude and Relationship(SMS) was adapted and validated. And the relationships among SMS, psychological health, and virtues such as creativity, openness, and self-control were then investigated using data from 347 undergraduate students. With proper reliability, SMS was found to be composed of four factors: Self-Determined Solitude(SDS), Not Self-Determined Solitude(NSDS), Self-Determined Relationship(SDR) and Not Self-Determined Relationship (NSDR). SDS showed a positive relationship with the preference of solitude, and productivity in solitude. In addition, SDS showed a positive correlation with positive characteristics, including life satisfaction, creativity, openness, and self-control. However, NSDS showed a positive relationship with psychological distress including loneliness, depression, and social avoidance. In study 2, the relationships among SMS, temperament and personality, and attachment were investigated, based on data from 189 undergraduate students. According to the results, both SDS and NSDS were linked to high introversion, and low reward dependence (social sensitivity), however, only NSDS was related to high harm avoidance, low self-directedness, and low cooperativeness. In addition, NSDS showd an association with avoidant and anxious attachment styles. The findings of the current study suggest the positive aspects of self-determined solitude. Results of this study also demonstrated the differences between self-determined solitude motivation and not self-determined solitude motivation in temperament, personality, and attachment. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study, as well as suggestions for future studies were discussed.
This study evaluated and compared the operating characteristics and efficiencies of PAI positive and negative distortion indexes developed in America and Korea. Adults in a community administered PAI under three conditions: positive impression instruction, negative impression instruction, and standard instruction. The profile of negative dissimulation was elevated, while the profile of positive dissimulation was lower than that of standard instruction. Among indicators of positive distortion, KDF, PIM, and DEF were higher on positive impression instruction than negative impression instruction and standard instruction. Four indicators of negative distortion were all elevated on negative impression instruction. In calculation of the estimate of efficiency through ROC analysis, KMDF (AUC=.89), NIM raw score (AUC=.89), MAL (AUC=.83), PIM raw score (AUC=.72), DEF (AUC=.72) were fair. Review of the identification rate estimates for each cutoff score indicated that the sum of sensitivity and specificity on specific cutoff score of PIM raw score, DEF, KDF were high, however, that of Cashel Index was relatively low, and KMDF, NIM raw score, Rogers Index, and MAL were all high. These results suggest that, except for the Cashel index, indicators developed in America and Korea are all effective in detection of positive and negative impression management. Other implications and limitations are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine differences of impulsivity and flow experience according to internet addiction and internet usage type. A total of 486 undergraduate students participated in this study. They were asked to complete questionnaires concerned with the Internet addiction scale_(K-scale); 38 subjects were selected for inclusion in the ‘addiction group’, and 38 subjects were included in the ‘normal control group’. In the lab, subjects were given an Experiential Discounting task, BIS-11 scale, and Flow experience scale. The results showed significant correlation between delay discounting task and BIS-11, and, when two tasks were used together, explanation power regarding internet addiction increased. We also examined the differences according to the internet addiction and usage type. The results indicated that there was interaction between internet addiction and usage type on delay discounting task. Subjects in the Internet addiction group showed a lower indifference point and AUC value, indicating that they were impulsive and have difficulty in gratification of delay. Game group in normal controls was also impulsive. However, no interaction between internet addiction tendency and usage type was observed on the self-reported scale. Finally, we examined flow experience. The results indicated a difference in total score according to internet addiction, whereas no difference was observed according to usage type and there was no interaction effect. These results suggest that subjects in the normal control group can also show behavioral impulsivity according to usage type and show different aspects according to characteristic of impulsivity tasks. Also, web-surfing type as well as game type showed significant flow experience in the internet addiction group. Finally, more implications and limitations were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on anger, problematic behavior, and self-esteem of adolescents in school maladjustment. A total of 120 adolescent students in an alternative school who lived in Chonbuk province completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean Version (STAXI-K), Self-Esteem Scale while The Korean-Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) was completed by alternative school teachers. Twenty-two adolescents selected by those scales were randomly assigned to include 11 adolescents in the ACT group and 11 in the control group. The ACT program was administered for 10 sessions. All participants completed State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean Version (STAXI-K), Korean-Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), and Self-Esteem Scale at pre-test, post-test, and at 10-week follow-up. The results of this study were as follows: anger, problematic behavior of the therapy group showed a greater decrease, compared with those of the control group; self-esteem showed an increase in the therapy group. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study, as well as suggestions for future study were also discussed.
Risk-taking behaviors result from the imbalance between affective Hot system and rational Cool system. This imbalance is affected by ambivalence and metacognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ambivalence and metacognition on drinking behaviors as risk-taking behaviors. In order to create naturalistic groups based on actual data, we used cluster analysis. A four-cluster solution was selected for representation of data. Cluster 1 represented high ambivalence and high metacognition, Cluster 2 represented low ambivalence and high metacognition, Cluster 3 represented low ambivalence and low metacognition, and Cluster 4 represented high ambivalence and low metacognition. In addition, the analysis examined differences in alcohol use within groups. Cluster 1 had a lower frequency of drinking, a smaller amount of drinking, a lower level of obsessive alcohol thought, and a superior stage of change, compared with the other clusters. Results of correlation analyses indicated that both ambivalence and metacognition were related to drinking behaviors. These results suggest that the balance between Hot system and Cool system is essential for healthy drinking. Therefore, understanding the balance between the systems may be needed in order to resolve drinking problems.