The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic ability of K-scale, one of the most popular Internet addiction scale in Korea, as a diagnostic tool for DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). This study aimed to compare the diagnostic ability of the full version of K-scale with the symptom subscales of K-scale and to establish the optimal cut-off points of the K-scale. A total of 274 adolescents were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-5 Internet Gaming Disorder and administered questionnaires (K-scale, Brief symptom Inventory, Zukerman-Kuhnman Personality Questionnaire, Parent- Child Communication Scale, and Emotion Modulation Scale). Addictionally, 133 middle school students were administered self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the symptom subscales of K-scale was more effective in diagnosing IGD than the full version of K-scale. In detail, the diagnostic (60/61 point) cut-off points of symptom K scale, which showed the higher diagnostic accuracy, classifying 60.0% and 88.5% of participants correctly, was used to select the case group. It was demonstrated that the case group was found to be significantly different from the non-case group on the gaming activity patterns and the psycho-social variables, suggesting that the cut-off point can identify IGD group efficiently. The limitations and implications were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy(ACT) on posttraumatic stress symptoms and complex posttraumatic stress symptoms of college students with interpersonal trauma. College students completed Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Complex Posttraumatic stress Symptoms Scale, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Acceptance & Action Questionnaire-16. Twenty-four students(treatment group n=12, control group n=12) participated in this study, ACT program was administered for eight sessions. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, complex posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative cognition, emotion dysregulation and acceptance action were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at 8 weeks follow-up periods. The results of this study were as follows: Posttraumatic stress symptoms, complex posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative cognition, emotion dysregulation decreased in the therapy group more than in the control group, whereas acceptance action increased in the therapy group. The findings of this study suggest that ACT may effective on improving posttraumatic stress symptoms and related psychological vulnerability factors of college students with interpersonal trauma. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study, along with suggestions for future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to produce a preliminary study of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, Korean Version (K-Vineland-Ⅱ) and to compare the survey interview and parent/caregiver rating forms. Participants were 100 general individuals aged birth through 90 years. The internal consistency of the scales (Cronbach’s α) ranged from .96～.99. and was similar on the two forms. Correlations between the two forms of sub-domain scores showed a strong correlation from .75 to .96. Difference of the sub-domain raw scores between forms was very small (Cohen’s d ≤ .05). Compared with difference between forms according to respondent’s sex, education, none of interaction effects were significant, meanings that respondent’s sex and education did not affect scores between forms. This study showed that two forms of K-Vineland-Ⅱ are reliable and scores from the two forms are highly correlated. These results provide the evidence to justify combining the data from the two forms.
Assuming anger rumination as a cognitive variable influencing anger experience (trait anger) and expression, this study attempts to explore the role of working memory capacity as a variable controlling the relationship between anger rumination and anger. For this study, a questionnaire survey and a working memory capacity experiment was conducted on 120 university students. Reading the research methods, the study was explained to the participants, who in turn were encouraged to compose questionnaires. When the experiment completion signs appeared after completion of the experimental tasks, the examiner was allowed to fill in the test form with the number of words and endings that the participants had memorized. The results of this study were as follows. First, three sub-factors of anger rumination all showed positive correlation with trait anger, and with anger-in/anger-out, two of three sub-factors of anger expression excluding anger-control. Second, the sub-factors of anger rumination and working memory capacity had significant influence on trait anger and anger expression. Third, as a result of hierarchical multiple regression analysis for examination of control effects, working memory capacity showed interactive effects in its relations with anger rumination and trait anger, meanings that working memory capacity had influence on increase or decrease of anger experience in the relations.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emotion regulation on a mechanism explaining internet game addiction (daily stress → psychological distress → internet game addition). For this purpose, K-scale (Korean version of internet addiction scale), DERS (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), Korean version of stress scale, and BSI-18 (Brief Symptoms Inventory-18) were administered to 415 junior high school students residing in Seoul and Kyungkido Province. Results of Path analysis indicated that daily stress had only an indirect effect on internet game addiction, but emotion regulation had a direct effect as well as an indirect effect on internet game addiction and its total effect on internet game addiction was much larger than the total effect of daily stress. Emotion regulation attenuated the effect of daily stress on psychological distress, but promoted the effect of psychological distress on internet game addiction. In addition, for individuals with higher emotion regulation, the indirect effect of daily stress was lower, but the indirect effect of emotion regulation was greater. Implications of the study were discussed.
This study examined the effects of the acceptance and cognitive restructuring treatments for moderating social anxiety induced from an impromptu speech in a laboratory situation. The sample consisted of 60 undergraduates who scored high in social anxiety. Participants in each group were assigned to one of three conditions: acceptance(20), cognitive restructuring(21), or neutral(19) treatment conditions. Through videos a rationale and exercise corresponding to each condition were given to participants in the acceptance and cognitive restructuring conditions, and a documentary about nature was given to participants in the neutral condition. Following that course, all participants were asked to give an impromptu speech. The acceptance group showed a lower increase in heart rate in a speech from baseline than the cognitive restructuring and neutral groups, and there was no difference between the cognitive restructuring and neutral groups. There were no differences in subjective anxiety responses between the three groups. In addition, the acceptance group showed an increase in acceptance of social anxiety and a decrease in negative cognition, and the cognitive restructuring group showed a decrease in negative cognition only. These results suggest that acceptance is most effective for moderating social anxiety from a speech. Finally, the implication of this study and direction for future study were discussed.
The purpose of the present study is to validate Stanton et al(2000b)’s Emotional Approach Coping (EAC) scale in Korean Military Academy cadets. For this purpose, exploratory factor analysis has been conducted, targeting 398 KMA cadets. Its result has disclosed that the EAC scale yields 2 distinct EAC factors: 4 items for emotional process and 4 items for emotional expression. A 2-factor solution accounts for 60.28% of the variance. The result of confirmatory factor analysis based on a sample of 627 KMA cadets has shown that a model of 2 factors fits well with the data: χ2(16)=35.81, CFI=.99, TLI=.99, RMSEA=.05, SRMR=.01. The result also shows a high internal consistency reliability, providing .90 of emotional process and .88 of emotional expression respectively. We have found that emotional process - in its correlations with WOC, positive and negative affect, depression, state anxiety, and satisfaction with life scale - has the characteristic of approach-oriented coping strategies which are usually considered to belong to problem-focused coping. From the result of hierarchical multiple regression analysis, we have known that EAC can take into account the inherent variance in state anxiety and satisfaction with life that negative affect and emotion-focused coping cannot explain. At the end of this study, we have addressed implications and limitations of this study, and have provided recommendations for future studies.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and the mechanisms of ‘Acceptance-Positive Psychotherapy (APPT)’ which was designed to integrate Acceptance-based psychotherapy with Positive psychotherapy. APPT involves acceptance of an emotional distress associated with depression and then fully experiencing a positive emotion as well. Based on literature review, the mechanisms of changes in APPT proposed both experiential avoidance and emotion rates as mediators of treatment changes. Thirty-six participants in the APPT group completed the measures of depression, happiness, positive affect, negative affect, experiential avoidance, and acceptance before, after, and four weeks-after the program. Forty-one participants in the non-treatment group also completed all of the same scale during the same period as the APPT group. The main results were: 1) APPT group showed significant alleviation of depressive symptoms as well as significant enhancement of happiness and acceptance, compared with the non-treatment group. These effects continued to a four-week follow-up. 2) The decrease of experiential avoidance and increase of positive emotion rates mediated sequentially between APPT and alleviation of depressive symptoms. Finally, implications of APPT, limitations of the study, and future research options were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Measurement Equivalence of the Korean version of OABCL across 4 informant groups: Spouse, Child, Friend, and Care Worker. The samples were originally recruited for standardization of the Korean version of ASEBA Older Adult Forms. Among them, this study utilized the data of 464 59- to 88-year-olds whose other (OABCL) reports were valid. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor structure of the original OABCL can be applied to the Korean version. Measurement Equivalence tests indicated that OABCL measurement constructs have consistent meanings across informant groups. However, there were noticeable differences in the baseline of rating criteria depending on informant groups. The residual variances of the measured variables were relatively large on Anxiety/Depressed and Irritable/Disinhibited scales. Measurement errors in ratings of Care Worker were the largest among all except for the Worries scale. Implications of using OABCL as a clinical and research instrument by informant groups are discussed
This study investigated the reliability and validity of The Adolescent Cognitive Style Questionnaire (ACSQ) for measurement of the cognitive vulnerability to depression with middle and high school students. The ACSQ demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability and good test-retest reliability. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the ACSQ was composed of all three negative cognitive style-negative inferences for cause, consequence, and self- posited by the hopelessness theory, consistent with the study of Hankin and Abramson(2002). The ACSQ showed significant correlation with another standard measure of attributional style, the Children’s Attributional Style Inventory (CASI), as well as with depressive and internalizing symptoms. Construct validity of the ACSQ was confirmed by analyses showing that negative cognitive style interacted with negative life events to predict depressive symptoms and internalizing problems but not externalizing problems. Thus the results suggest that the ACSQ is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescents. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderated mediating effect of perceived social support through cognitive emotion regulation strategies on the relationship between stress and psychological health problems. A total of 246 Korean navy personnels participated in this study by responding to the following questionnaires: Stress Diagnostic Scale for Korean Military Personnel, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Korean version of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (K-CERQ), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The main findings were as follows. First, stress, psychological health problem, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and social support showed statistically significant correlations. Second, a mediating model showed that the relationship between stress and psychological health problem was partially mediated by both adaptive and maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Third, using multiple regression and slope analysis, the moderation effect of perceived social support on the relationship between maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychological health problem was found, but not for adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Finally, perceived social support also moderated the mediating effect of stress on psychological health problems through maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Implications for improvement of psychological health of navy personnel and suggestions for future research are discussed.