The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship among depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation with high school students. In study 1, to examine the cross-cultural applicability of Beck's theoretical model for suicide, 718 adolescents (375 males and 343 females) were given self-report measures of depression, hopelessness and suicidal ideation and the data were analyzed with LISREL to test the relationship among the above 3 variables. The results showed that correlation between depression and suicidal ideation remained significant even when hopelessness was statistically controlled, while correlation between hopelessness and suicidal ideation was reduced considerably when depression was controlled. In study 2, to test whether self-report scales used in the present study is contaminated with social desirability, and whether depression and hopelessness interact with coping beliefs to have an effect on suicidal ideation, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Depression and hopelessness were correlated with suicidal ideation even after social desirability was partialled out, indicating that self-report scales of depression, hopelessness have a construct validity. Depression and hopelessness don't interact with coping beliefs to have an effect on suicidal ideation, suggesting that coping belief is not a cognitive buffer to suicidal ideation in adolescents. Depression-hopelessness-suicide relationship might be qualitatively different between adolescents and adults, which was discussed in terms of therapeutic implication for the treatment and prevention of adolescent suicide.
The present study examined whether the suicidal ideation among Korean high school students is related to college entrance examination. Important findings and implications are that (1) there is no grade difference in the severity of suicidal ideation, (2) nevertherless, the suicidal ideation in each high school grades involes different cogntive factors and mechanisms, (3) salient factors influenceing suicidal ideation are the levels of aspiration for the 1st graders and the levels of current academic proficiency for the 2nd and 3rd graders, (4) given a constant level of current academic proficiency, encouragement for the goal achievement for the 2nd graders and realistic (downward) readjustment of standards for the 3rd graders may help reduce the severity of suicidal ideation, (5) internal attribution of the aspiration-reality discrepancy may be harmful especially for the 3rd grade students, (6) for theoretical concern, the aspiration-reality discrepancy may interact with perceived controllability to influence suicidal ideation Viadepression.
Child Behavior Checklists completed by parents of 962 clinically referred Korean boys aged 4-5, 6-11 and 12-16 were subjected to principal components analyses and varimax rotations. Of the behavior problem syndromes derived from the analyses, aggressive, hyperactive, delinquent, social withdrawal and somatic complaints syndromes were similar in their item compositions across the three age groups, while internalizing syndromes such as depressive, anxious, and schizoid/psychotic syndromes tended to vary depending on the age groups. Comparison of empirically derived syndrome scales of the American and Korean CBCL indicated that externalizing syndromes such as aggressive, delinquent, hyperactive Syndromes were similar across different cultures, while relatively more crosscultural differences were found in internalizing syndromes and psychotic/schizoid syndromes.
It was hypothesized that the effects of feedback in hyperactive group would differ from that in non-hyperactive group according to the extent of attentional demand. On the basis of the rated score on Short form Conners teacher rating scale, 32 students, whose score is above 2 standard deviation above the mean were selected, and defined as the hyperactive group, 32 students, who with scores below the mean score were selected as control group. The subjects performed visual search task in which presentation speed of stimuli and the number of target were varied. A half of each group was given feedback contingent on the performance, and the other half were not. The results of present study suggested that the reaction time of the hyperactive group decreased more rapidly than that of the control group when contingent feedback was given. The rate of the increase in the reaction time with increase in the memory set was greater in the hyperactive group than in the control group. The present study indicated that the hyperactive group generally improved in their perfomance level when they were given feedback. The group improved consistently at the low attentional demand, but showed a different trade-off pattern between reaction time and accuracy at the high level of attentional demand when they were given feedback. The differential feedback effect suggested that attentional demand level should be considered when contingent feedback is used training of hyperactive children.
Several previous studies reported that substance abusers scored siginficantly higher than controls on psychoticism and neuroticism, scale on EPQ, whereas consistent results were not found on extraversion-introversion. The present study attempted to delineate personality characteristics of substance abusers and controls' based on the Eysenck's personality dimensions of psychoticism, neuroticism and extraversion-introversion. The Korean EPQ was administered to 19 substance abusers (3 heroin addicts, 1 marijuana addict and 15 alcohol addicts) and 34 controls. Results showed that substance abusers characteristically exhibited higher scores on psychoticism, and were more introverted and less sociable than controls. On neuroticism, there was no significant difference between the two groups.
The present study was conducted to investigate attention deficit of schizophrenic patients on Continuous Performance Tests(CPT). Specifically, the effects of task difficulty and the chronicity of patients on the performance of CPT were evaluated. 20 psychiatric inpatients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 20 normal controls matched for age and years in education were tested on two types of CPT, Hanguel CPT and Playing card CPT. Each CPT task was given under both distracter and nondistractor condition. Signal detection analysis was performed on the hit and false alarm rates, yielding sensitivity and response criterion index. The results indicated that sensitivity on the playing card CPT with higher information loading was lower than on the Hanguel CPT. The patients with more than 5years since the first admission date(chronic group) showed little difference in their CPT performance as a function of task difficulty, while the patients with less than 5 years since the first admission date(acute group) showed a significantly poorer performance on the more difficult CPT. There was little difference in response criterion index as a function of chronicity, suggesting that cognitive impairments rather than motivational deficit characterize chronic schizophrenic patients. The results imply that within schizophrenic patients group, different types of information processing deficit are evident depending on the chronicity and that the task difficulty variable which has been paid little attention in the literature is an important factor to consider in future research.
This experiment used electric shock as stressor and observed effects of ranitidine (a H₂-receptor antagonist) and lorazepam(a minor tranquilizer) on inhibiting the development of stomach lesion, administrating each one or together. A total of 32 rats were put in Skinner Box and received electric shocks for 48 hours. They were randomly assigned to each of the four groups, that is, a lorazepam. a ranitidine, a ranitidine+lorazepam, and a control group. Results show that the group administrated lorazepam exhibited significantly less stomach lesion than the other groups. There was no group difference in terms of bodyweight-loss, lever pressing and water drinking except for the index of stomach lesion.
The present research describes an experiment designed to examine the relationship between absorption and frontalis EMG level. Briefly, absorption is defined as the capacity for absorbed, self-altering attention involving a full commitment of available perceptual, motoric imaginative and ideational resources to a unified representation of the attentional objects. There have been two theoretical interpretations about Absorption X Treatment interaction, that is, about the way in which low- and high-absorption subjects attained their best relaxation levels. One is that the lows by attending to external stimuli, the highs by turning to inner experiences. The other is that low absorption persons attain a higher level of relaxation under conditions calling for an instrumental set, and high-absorption subjects relax better if an experiential set is forstered. In this experiment, high- and low-absorption subjects were assigned to either a experiential condition which was the same as traditional no-feedback condition (instruction only and no external attentional demand) or instrumental condition in which subjects were not provided with an external focus but were asked to perform a specific task. The pattern of results was consistent with the latter interpretation. For low absorption subjects, performance in instrumental condition was appreciably greater than in the experiential condition, inspite of no external attentional demanding. It was concluded that it is not the internal versus external focus per se that plays a decisive role but the subject's experiential versus instrumental set in this interaction.
Inward behaviors have been treated as abandonment of controlling motives by studies of helplessness and locus of control. But Rothbaum et al. (1982) maintained that the perception of controllability was too important to be given up. In view of this, inward behaviors could be considered as efforts to try and keep control. They called this type of control secondary control. To investigate existence and adaptive significance of secondary control under the uncontrollable situations, attempts to try secondary control was conceptualized as a few constructs. And it was investigated if the phenomena to satisfy these constructs happened. Finally, it was evaluated relation between secondary control and adaptiveness. The results indicated that inward behaviors necessarily didn't accompany the perception of uncontrollability and that these inward behaviors were related to adaptiveness. These suggested that secondary control exist and have adaptiveness significance under uncontrollable situations. But these results need further research in the future, partially with powerful manipulation in laboratory and more samples in the real world.
The purpose of this study is to find cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics of Learning Disabled children and to understand their interactions and dynamic processes in the overall viewpoint. The subjects are a Learning disabled group (n=15) that consists of children who diagnosed as Learning Disabled and are receiving treatment in a specific clinic. And the normal group (n=17) consists of children who don't have distinct disorders and have rank of 10-30. All the children are in 2-3 grades of primary school. Both of the groups received KEDI-WISC and Rorschach test and their parents checked CBCL. The results are as follows: In KEDI-WISC, the IQ of the LD (Learning disabled) group was normal, but the LD group demonstrated Bannetyne's hierarchys and great Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancy. In Rorschach Test, the LD group had insufficient ability in analysis and synthesis of a complex situation, and had distortion and failure in accurate perception. Stress control and emotional control were defective. On the contrary, they have great rigidity, emotional withdrawal, avoidance of affective stimuli and defensive attitudes. And they also have negative self-images and insufficient interpersonal interests. In CBCL, the LD group demonstrated a lower ability in activities, social and school competence, and higher behavior problems than the normal group.
The purpose of this study was to examine correlation between Intellectual Intelligence(IQ) and Social Intelligence(SQ) using 21 developmental disabilities children, especially 14 autism children among development disabilities children, and 10 normal children. The subjects were tested the KEDI-WISC and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale in order to measure IQ and SQ. The results showed that (a) SQ of developmental disabilities group was significantly correlated with Performance IQ. Full Scale IQ, Arithemetic, Coding, Block Design, Picture Completion (b) SQ of autism group was correlated with Arithemetic, Information (c) SQ of normal group was no correlated with any variables.
This study was attempted to analyze Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventoy responses to peripheral vertiginous outpatients in the department of otolaryngology. MMPI was administered to 80 peripheral vertiginous cases and classified its profile with the same patterns of profile considering each subtest's elevations and profile configurations by the author. All of the profiles can be classified three types of profile. Profile type I showed a normal profile which T scores of all validity and clinical scales belong to the range of 45 to 55 points. Profile II showed a typical 1-3-2 profile type suggesting mainly depressive neurosis in the department of neuropsychiatry. Thai is, Hs, Hy, and D scales were dominant in the profiles and the configuration of the scales were basically same profile patterns of the clinical-depressive group. Profile type III were seemed to be a rather psychotic profile suggesting more emotional difficulties. The percentage of type I among the subjects was 32.5%. And the percentage of type II and type III was 60% and 7.5% respectively. According to the MMPI profile types, it was also indicated that 68% of peripheral vertiginous patients are related to emotional difficulties in any way, particularly depressive in nature. But it does not mean that emotional factors in the peripheral vertiginous patients are basically primary casuses. Even so, this results indicated that pschological assessment are necessary procedure in order to diagnose the peripheral vetigo and treat the patients more effectively.
This study attempted to identify the psychological characterstics of headache patients. The demographic data, the characteristics of headache, the variables of psychological distress, and the MMPI T scores of 127 headache patients were analyzed. The profile of total headache patients on MMPI was 'conversion V' and classified into three clusters. There were differences among three clusters in sex, occupation, duration of headache, frequency, depression and anxiety. Cluster 1 was characterized by elevation on Hs, Hy, Pd and Sc scale and included the greater ratio of male. Cluster 2 is characterized by elevation on Hs, D, Hy, Sc, Pt and Si scale, and included more salesman. Cluster 3 was characterized by elevation on Hs and Hy, and included more housewife, and show longest duration of headache. But the difference of profiles of MMPI in accordance with the headache subtypes, i.e. tension headache, migraine and mixed headache, was not identified. It was suggested that the headache patients could be classified by psychological characteristics; the group with self-assertion deficit, the group experiencing emotional distress and the group with histrionic dispositions.
Basing on the research done by Christian, Burkhart, and Gynther (1978), 214 college students were asked to rate all of the 566 items of the MMPI on a five-point scale how subtle or obvious each item stated the pathology concerned. Subjects were also requested to predict which way-either true or false-each item be scored in terms of the pathological direction. The 214 subjects were divided into two groups and each group was to rate a half of the 566 items. On the basis of 14 duplicated items, 87.1% of reliability of ratings was obtained. It was found that 365 items were rated obvious while the rate of 201 items were subtle. Ratings on a five-point scale of the item obviousness show that the clinical scale Pa is the most obvious while the Hs and the Mf are the least. The results of this study is compaired to the Wiener's study(1998) to find that 16.4% of the subtle items and 17.8% of the obvious items are classified as not valid. It is recommended that further study is needed to test the validity of the subtle-obvious items.
The most of the previous researches suggested that a combination of some MMPI scales are useful to identify random response set of the MMPI profiles. Greene (1978) recommended the TR > 4, Ca > 4, F > 80 for a clinical decision. In order to identify the validity of this criteria, 182 MMPI profiles obtained from psychiatric patients, 142 profiles of the students who visited to the university counseling center and 150 computer generated random response profiles were analyzed. The results show that the Greene's criteria does not classify random response set profiles successfully because most of the items of F scale do not satisfy the original selection criterion. As an alternative to this identification criteria, a new scale which would replace the F scale was constructed and applied. The consequencies are that a new scale is more successful in identifying the random response set profiles than the originally suggested criteria. A discriminant analysis using the TR, Ca and the new F scale as prediction variables showed that 97.4 % is successful in classifying the profiles while 97.0 % is successful in classifying the profiles used for cross validation.
This study aimed to confirm the KWIS subtest scatter pattern for psychotic patients in Korea. Subjects were 78 psychotic and 80 neurotic patients who were hospitalized in or visited as outpatients the Seoul National University Hospital during the period from the March of 1985 to the December of 1990. No significant difference was found between the two groups in sex ratio, age or education level. Results were found that psychotic patients had statistically significant difference between VIQ and PIQ and greater scatter among subtests compared with neurotic patients. Psychotics had high scores on Information and Digit Span subtests while low scores on Picture Completion and Object Assembly subtests. Cluster analysis revealed that a difference between psychotic and neurotic patients existed in the subtest scatter pattern when their IQ's belonged to the average level but no such difference was found when their IQ belonged to the above average level or higher. These results were discussed in regard to the cognitive characteristics of psychotic patients including the limitation of this study.
This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HABGT psychopathology scale and the configurational approach. The subject groups, matched for age and educational level, consisted of following ; the patients with organic mental disorder(N=51), all of them were selected on the basis clinically verified neurological examination, such as EEG and/or brain CT ; the chronic inpatient schizophrenics(N=51) ; and the neurotic patients(N=51), most of them had somatization or anxiety. The reproduction of the HABGT cards was scored by two scorers. The correlation of the total scores on the psychopathology scale for two scorers for 47 patients was .94. The results showed that the psychopathology scale was able to differentiate organics from nonorganics, that is schizophrenics and neurotics. The configurational approach was not to achieve satisfactory accuracy in seperationg three groups. Inconsistent with the previous findings, the correlation between IQ and the total score on the psychopathology scale was significantly high, r=-.61. The probable reasons for these incosistent findings were discussed.