The present study investigated the psychometric properties of a scale by adapting Bryant's (2003) Savoring Belief Inventory(SBI). Seoul college students were used to verify the reliability and validity of a scale. Three factors including Anticipating, Savoring the Moment and Reminiscing appeared in the exploratory factor analysis which corresponded to Bryant's results (2003). As a result of a confirmatory factor analysis, it appeared that the five-factor model consisting of Anticipating, Savoring the Moment, and Reminiscing, as well as positively and negatively-anchored method factors were more suitable than the other competing models. Therefore, this five-factor structure was selected as the final measurement model on the basis of its explanatory power (i.e., it had the best overall goodness-of-fit) and on the basis of an a priori theory (i.e., it paralleled the putative structure around which the SBI items were originally created). The total factors and subscales all demonstrated proper internal consistency with respect to the Korean version of the SBI, and as a result of an examination of its relationship with variables related to criteria, it was positively correlated with life satisfaction and positive emotion and negatively correlated with negative emotion. Also, it was correlated with individual-difference variables such as extroversion or optimism; however, it was, not correlated with socially desirable responses. These results suggest that the Korean version of the SBI has both valid and reliable psychometric properties.
People use a variety of strategies to regulate their negative moods. Some strategies are more effective than others at reducing these moods. In this study, we investigated the effect of rumination, distraction, and positive reappraisal strategies on angry mood and blood pressure. A total of 44 college students participated, and were randomly assigned to a rumination group(N=14; 8 males, 6 females), a distraction group(N=15; 8 males, 7 females), or a positive reappraisal group(N=15; 8 males, 6 females). Participants received a penalty if they caused anger in the social interaction situation. Participants were instructed to cause anger, ruminate, practice distraction, and perform positive reappraisal strategies. Researchers measure participants mood and blood pressure before and after the feeling of anger and after the emotion regulation. In this way, we investigated effective emotion regulation strategies with respect to anger. Results indicate that rumination, distraction, and positive reappraisal strategies were able to decrease angry mood and increased positive mood. Also, all strategies decreased minimum blood pressure.
This study investigated the neuropsychological functioning of female college students with schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive traits. Based on scores from the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire(SPQ), Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory(MOCI), and the Padua Inventory(PI), schizotypal-trait(n=18), obsessive -compulsive trait(n=19) and normal control(n=22) groups were selected. For the measurement of neuropsychological functions, attention(Trail Making Test: TMT, d2, Stroop test), memory(Korean version of California Verbal Learning Test: K-CVLT, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test: RCFT), and executive(Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: WCST) tests were administered. The schizotypal-trait group demonstrated significantly prolonged response time on the word-reading task of the Stroop test and poorer concentration performance of the d2 test than both the obsessive-compulsive trait and control groups. In addition, the schizotypal-trait and obsessive-compulsive trait groups exhibited more total errors, perseverative responses and perseverative errors on the WCST. In other words, the schizotypal-trait group demonstrated deficits in attention, memory and executive function, whereas the obsessive-compulsive trait group showed deficits in executive function only. In addition, the obsessive-compulsive trait group exhibited significantly higher scores on SPQ than normal controls, while the schizotypal-trait group demonstrated higher scores on the MOCI and PI than normal controls. These neuropsychological and behavioral results indicate that both schizotypal-trait and obsessive-compulsive trait groups share common cognitive deficits, i.e., deficits in executive function, and symptoms.
This study examined the relationships among perceived parenting behaviors, dysfuncitonal attitude, behavioral avoidance, and adolescent depression. Based on previous studies, partial and full dual mediation models were proposed, in which dysfunctional attitude and behavioral avoidance would sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived parenting behaviors and adolescent depression. In order to compare two mediation models and alternative models, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used. The SEM revealed that a partial dual mediation model fit the data well. These findings suggest that dysfunctional attitude and behavioral avoidance sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived parenting behaviors and adolescent depression, and perceived parenting behaviors directly influence adolescent depression. Further, multi-group analysis demonstrated that a partial dual mediation model could be applied for both genders. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
The present study examined the validity of the Korean version of the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (K-BVMT) for assessing visuospatial memory in the elderly. The K-BVMT was developed with some modifications in stimulus presentations and scoring methods of the original Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) for use with the Korean elderly. The subjects were 258 healthy elderly people (86 men, 172 women; mean age = 68.18 ± 7.54 years; mean education = 5.54 ± 4.78 years) recruited from the community. They were given the K-BVMT, with Seoul Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. The K-BVMT was re-administered to 30 subjects after a 4-week interval. The K-BVMT test-retest reliability was significantly high (r = .83 - .84, p < .001). Of 258 subjects, 132 were shown the stimulus without grid, as in the original BVMT-R (NG condition), and the rest were shown the stimulus with grid (G condition). The correlation analyses showed that the K-BVMT correlated significantly with the verbal memory test as well as the visuospatial memory test. In the G condition, however, the K-BVMT correlated more strongly with the visuospatial memory test than with the verbal memory test, in contrast to the NG condition. In the G condition, the K-BVMT factor that consisted of only K-BVMT variables was extracted from the factor analysis, whereas, in the NG condition, the K-BVMT variables were included in the same factor with the verbal memory variables. These results confirmed that the K-BVMT is a valid visuospatial memory test in the G condition. Therefore, elderly norms for the K-BVMT were produced only in the G condition. Finally, we discussed the implications of the differences between the K-BVMT's NG and G conditions in relation to age-related changes in visuospatial memory processing.
This study examined the mediation effects of depressive experience styles between anxiety-avoidance dimensions of attachment and interpersonal problems. 455 undergraduate students were asked to completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Scales(ECR), the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales(IIP-C), and the Depression Experiences Questionnaire(DEQ). The results showed that dependency depressive experience style mediated the association between anxious attachment and dependent interpersonal problems. And self-criticism depressive experience style mediated the association between avoidant attachment and independent interpersonal problems. Besides, anxious attachment predicted dependent interpersonal problems and independent interpersonal problems directly, and also predicted self-criticism depressive expeience style. And avoidant attachment predicted independent interpersonal problems directly. Additionally, self-criticism depressive experience style predicted dependent interpersonal problems. These results meant that anxiety attachment influences depressive experience styles and interpersonal problems more expansively than avoidant attachment. Based on these results, the processes that attachment influences depressive experience styles and interpersonal problems were discussed. And the clinical implications and limitations of these results and the suggestions for future researches were also discussed.
This study investigated the correlation between borderline personality trait, early object relationship experience, self-concept, and defense mechanisms. For this research, 474 male and female university students were asked to answer the early object relationship scale, self-concept scale, Korea-defense style questionnaire, and Korea-personality disorder scale. Subsequently, we studied the mediating effects of self-concept and defense mechanism on the association of early object relationship experience and borderline personality traits. The results were as follows; early object relationship experience with parents accounted for 22% of borderline personalities, self-concept in a controled state where early object relationship experience was restricted contributed a further 6%, defense mechanisms in a state that those two variables was restricted accounted for 22% of the results from a hierarchical multiple regression analyses of the variables. Additionally, there was a difference in the way negative early object relationship concerning the mother and father affected borderline personalities through self-concept and defense mechanism. In particular, a negative early object relationship with the mother created borderline personalities directly or indirectly, through self-concept and immature defense mechanisms; however, only the indirect path through self-concept and immature defense mechanism was meaningful in early object relationships with the father. Further, the mediating effect of self-concept and defense mechanism, which was introduced from the path model, was significant as a result of the Sobel test. This research demonstrated that negative self-concept, immaturity, and self-restrictive defense mechanisms serve to mediate the progress in the relationship between negative early object relationships and borderline personality traits. Further, the mediating effect of these variables was variable with respect to each parent. Finally, the limitations and suggestion for further research were discussed.
In the present study, we compared cognitive impairments in schizophrenic and psychotic bipolar disorder patients and also investigated the relationships between psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments. Forty-four patients with chronic schizophrenia and 13 with psychotic bipolar disorder underwent a neurocognitive battery which measured performance on key cognitive domains for schizophrenia. Overall intelligence and clinical characteristics were also evaluated. The results revealed that schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than patients with psychotic bipolar disorder with regard to processing speed, attention/vigilance, and verbal learning domains. Additionally, medium-sized effects were found across all cognitive measures between the two patient groups. However, these differences disappeared after controlling for the severity of psychotic symptoms. A subsequent multivariate analysis revealed that the main effect for group on cognitive performance was insignificant and that psychotic symptoms, especially disorganized symptoms, significantly contributed to cognitive impairment, even after controlling for group differences. This indicated that psychotic symptoms contribute to cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, because the patterns of correlations between psychotic symptoms and cognitive performance varied with respect to schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder, it is reasonable to suggest that the underlying mechanisms of these two psychiatric disorders may differ.
Schizotypal personality disorder is not only one of the important personality disorders but also closely related to chronic schizophrenia. Further, its role has been extended to psychosis proneness in normal people. Raine (1991) previously developed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) which includes 9 sub-criteria of SPD. Subsequently, Raine and Benishay (1995) developed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) for the purpose of rapidly detecting psychosis proneness. The items on the SPQ-B were selected from the original SPQ. The purpose of this study was to standardize the SPQ-B, Korean version. Two sample groups participated in this study. The First included 499 college students who had completed the original SPQ. The second included 170 college students who completed, the SPQ-B, Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+), and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS). Following this, a correlation between the SPQ-B and other scales was calculated. Among the second sample, 51 college students completed the SPQ-B twice to examine test-retest reliability. As a result, the reliability of the SPQ-B was 0.76, test-retest reliability was 0.75, and the mean of the item-total correlation was 0.31. Further, results of a factor analysis demonstrated the three factors which the original authors insisted had been properly discriminated. The correlation between the SPQ-B and other scales also showed results consistent with previous studies. Based on these results, we can conclude that the reliability and validity of the Korean version of SPQ-B are appropriate.
A major use of neuropsychological evaluations is to measure changes in cognitive functioning over time. However, it is difficult to determine whether a difference in test performance indicates a real change in the individual or simply a product of normal variation. The current study established normative rates of change in the Korean Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS) from baseline to follow-up testing among 247 neurologically normal adults aged 50 years and older. Normative retest data were presented for two analytic techniques: the Reliable Change Index adjusted for practice (RCIp) and the Standardized Regression-Based Technique (SRB). With respect to K-DRS total scores and all subtest scores, the most powerful predictor of changes in performance was initial performance. This results suggested strong regression to the mean. Education and age were also significant predictors for some subtests. Further, participants who were more highly educated as well as younger participants demonstrated more improvement with regard to test performance. Considering the prediction intervals and the base rates of decliner and improver, the SRB seemed to provide more unbiased, reasonable prediction intervals than the RCIp.
The aim of this study was to examine the consistency in the scores and profile of clinical subscales of the MMPI and MMPI-2. College students(N=156) completed the MMPI and MMPI-2 in a one week interval with counterbalanced order. Results of the t-tests showed that the Hs, D, Hy, and Pd of the MMPI-2 profile were lower and the MF, Pa, Pt, Sc, Ma and Si of the MMPI-2 profile were higher than those of the MMPI profile. Correlations between corresponding clinical scales of the MMPI and MMPI-2 were .36(MF)~.78(Si). Percentages of one-point and two-point code type congruence between the MMPI and MMPI-2 were 36.5% and 19.2%. But applied “well-defined”(Graham et al., 1991) code type, the percentages were increased to 52.8% and 100% each other. Implications of these results were discussed with the results of previous studies.
The present study examined the effects of depression, emotion regulation, and mindfulness on binge eating behavior all of which was based on a theoretical model which emphasized the effect of negative emotions on binge eating behavior. Participants included 368 male and female in undergraduate students. They completed a self-report questionnaires assessing the level of depression, emotion regulation, mindfulness, binge eating behavior. The result, depression was related to binge eating behavior, and that adaptive and maladaptive strategies were included subscales of emotion regulation which also had significant correlations with binge eating behavior. Subscales of mindfulness as acting with awareness, nonjudging of experience, and observing were negatively associated with binge eating behavior. Furthermore, a comparison of the binge eating behavior group and the non binge eating behavior group showed differences in the level of depression, emotion regulation, acting with awareness, nonjudging of experience. Especially, interaction of three variables(i.e., depression, emotion regulation, and mindfulness) had a significant effect on binge eating behavior in a hierarchical multi-variate regression analysis. Likewise, a analysis Structural Equation Modeling, the moderating effect of mindfulness was found to be significant. It indicates to verify that, mindfulness moderates the effects of depression and emotion regulation on binge eating behavior. Finally, implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The Korean-Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), the Korean version of the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), which is one of the mostly used dementia evaluation tools in North America, has been used to diagnose and identify pathological processes since its development in the late 1990s. Previous studies have proven the reliability and validity of the K-DRS, and provided normative data for two age levels and two educational levels. To interpret the test accurately and apply the test to Korean elderly population, however, researchers need to develop a second version of the normative data, because it has been 10 years since the previous norms were created. This study aimed to establish a new version of the K-DRS norms, based on the newly-collected data, to complement previous norms and to contribute to exact diagnoses. Participants were normal elderly people (N = 785), with the age range 50-89 years. Our results confirmed age and education as the major significant factors for test performance scores, which was consistent with previous studies. The new norms become more specific as we divided the normative data into four age levels and four educational levels.
Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind. The ability to adopt a decentered view is a concept that has held some importance early within the cognitive-behavioral tradition. Recently, Segal, Williams and Teasdale(2002) propose/d that decentering would play a crucial role in preventing depression by blocking reactivation of the ruminative cognitive-affective processing. The current study sought to explore how decentering influences the relationship between rumination and depression. Specifically, the prediction that decentering would decrease brooding thereby reducing depressive symptoms was tested. In Study 1, the Experiences Questionnaire(EQ) was translated and validated as a self-report measure of decentering. Study 2 attempted to test the prediction that decentering would function as a protective factor in depression by reducing the levels of ruminative processing. The result of structural equation modeling suggested that high reflection and low decentering increase the level of brooding and consequently contribute to more depressive symptoms. The results of this study indicate that decentering is a concept of importance in maintaining mental health and can discriminate functionally different components of self-focused response. More importantly, the present study provides the initial empirical support for the prediction that decentering would prevent depression by reducing maladaptive form of rumination, brooding. This finding suggests that engaging in self-focused response to depressed mood in the absence of decentering is likely to progress to more depression. Lastly, some implications and limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of adolescent delinquency in a longitudinal study. The first assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006 as the original participants became middle school students (13-15 years of age). For the first assessment, the subjects were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), which was administered by the parents. In addition to the K-CBCL, the parents completed a general questionnaire which included information regarding family structure, parental education and economic status. Reassessment was done via self report using the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). The subjects were categorized into two groups according to delinquency subscale scores on the K-YSR; the delinquency group and the non-delinquency group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that delinquent behavior score and total problem score on the K-CBCL at age 7 independently predicted adolescent delinquency. In addition, the results revealed that a parent's observation of their child's problems could predict later delinquency. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study and suggestions for the future research were discussed.
We performed a meta-analysis of existing research to determine differences in cognitive function between unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients who had experienced a major depressive episode. We found seven relevant papers through a close review of academic databases. With respect to verbal memory, the number of words recollected from a list of words, which represented a subtest of a list learning test was employed as the dependent variable. Also, with regard to frontal-executive function, the number of generating words in the word fluency test, and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin card sorting test, which was designed to measure concept formation and set shifting ability were selected as dependent variables. The pooled effect of verbal memory was not significant and thus, there was no significant difference between the unipolar depression group and the bipolar depression group. In contrast, the pooled effect size related to verbal fluency was significant and thus, the unipolar depression group performed better than the bipolar depression group. The pooled effect size of higher-ranking cognitive abilities, such as the concept formation and conversion ability was significant and exceeded a moderate effect size level (d>0.40). Further, the homogeneity test was also significant. Thus it is difficult to conclude that differences existed between the two groups. The clinical implications of these results and inherent limitations of this research were also discussed.
This study investigated whether MMPI-2 clinical scales and restructured clinical scales were effective at explaining PTSD symptoms in firefighters. Data from 997 firefighters were analyzed. With respect to clinical scales, all scales were significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. In particular, 7(Pt), 8(Sc), and 1(Hs) were strongly correlated with PTSD symptoms. Similarly, with regard to restructured clinical scales, all were significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. In particular, RCd, RC7, and RC8 showed relatively high correlations. In a hierachical regression analysis, 7(Pt), 9(Ma), 2(D), and 1(Hs) from clinical scales and RCd, RC1, RC3, and RC9 from restructured clinical scales significantly predicted PTSD symptoms. The implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.
This study investigated the relationships between life stress and psychological symptoms, the moderating effects of perceived social support and coping style among North Korean refugees. Participants were 202 North Korean refugees(59 males, 143 females). The results indicated that the relationships between psychological symptoms and life stress, perceived social support, and passive coping were significant, whereas those between psychological symptoms and active coping were not. Multiple regression analyses showed that life stress, perceived social support, and passive coping predicted participants' psychological symptoms. The interaction effects between the variables were not significant. In the discussion, we address the meanings and implications of these findings.