The purpose of this study was to examine patterns related to parent and adolescent reports of problem behaviors in adolescents with internalization and externalization disorders. The Korean Youth Self-Report (K-YSR) was administered to 29 adolescents with internalization disorders (i.e., the internalization disorder group) and 37 adolescents with externalization disorders (i.e., the externalization disorder group). The Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) was administered to 66 parents. A t-test was used on 11 symptom scales of the K-CBCL and K-YSR to identify differences between the two groups. In addition, a discriminant function analysis was conducted to identify symptom scales which affected the diagnostic classification decisions. Additionally, agreement between parent and adolescent reports in the two groups was analyzed using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation. Further, a Chi-test was used to identify contingencies in the relative severity of parent and adolescent reports of problem behaviors depending on the type of adolescent's disorder (i.e., internalization or externalization disorder). Delinquent behavior, internalization and externalization symptom scales well reflected the problem behaviors both of the internalization and externalization disorder groups with respect to the parent and adolescent reports. Agreement between parent and adolescent reports of problem behaviors in adolescents were low. Further, the type of adolescent disorder and the relative severity of the problem behaviors as indicated by the parent and adolescent reports were not significantly related. These results may have been influenced by the demographic and/or clinical characteristics of the subjects. However, beyond assessing the agreement between informants or severity on behavior problems, these results suggest the need to consider the parent-adolescent interaction or the informant's perception regarding the severity of behavior problems. Finally, the limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future research have been discussed.
This study examined the effects of induced anxiety on cognitive bias and binge-eating behavior in BN through controlled experiments. Participants included 30 individuals who had been diagnosed as BN through the BULIT-R and DSM-IV and 30 individuals who were normal eaters free from eating problems. Subjects from both groups were randomly assigned into two affect conditions: anxiety or neutral affect. Each subjects completed dot probe detection tasks after the affect induction. That is, food-related word and neutral word pairs were presented on the screen, and soon after, participants were to recognize the location of dot probe and press the key that corresponded. After finishing the task, the participants were to enter a room with refreshments and while eating rice cake, complete the sweetness estimation questionnaire. The results showed that the binge-eating group exhibited statistically significant attentional bias to the food-related stimulus and ate more food than thenormal control group. Furthermore, there were some significant differences in attentional bias and food consumption according to the affect conditions between the two groups. The binge-eating group showed more attentional bias and food consumption when experiencing the anxiety affect as opposed to the neutral affect. The normal group showed opposite results. This study revealed that the binge-eating group had different cognitive and eating patterns than the normal eating group under the negative affect condition. These findings suggested the importance of the role of affect in binge-eating and potential implications for the intervention of BN.
Borderline Personality Disorder(BPD) is a complex psychological illness. For many years, little attention has been paid to childhood and adolescence borderline pathology, because the mental health professionals have viewed personality as lacking in cohesiveness and durability prior to the age of 18. Recently, however, a growing number of researchers have suggested that BPD is recognizable in adolescence. This study reviewed the characteristics of an adolescent BPD. To achieve this, the characteristics of BPD and psychopathic behavior related to 410 misdeed juveniles were compared with a consideration of the developmental characteristics of these juveniles. In subjects where borderline personality was confirmed, self-injury was confirmed that an association with variables such as self-injury and depression, emotional avoidance thinking, experience of anger, norm violation, negative emotion intensity, and suppression of emotional expression was able to clearly explain the development of borderline personality in these juveniles. Alternatively cases of psychopathic individuals, we confirmed that an association with variables such as belief in emotional control and self-injury, experience of anger, negative self-concept with regard both to personality, social aspects, physical neglect, expression of anger, low positive emotion, and anxiety were able to clearly explain the development of this condition. Despite exhibiting the same sorts of delinquent behaviors, the variables responsible for the development of BPD and psychopathic behavior are different. These results imply that prevention and treatment intervention strategies for juvenile delinquents are required according to personality characteristics.
Impairment of inhibitory mechanisms in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. Recent reviews regarding inhibitory functioning in AD have suggested that automatic inhibitory processes are intact while controlled inhibitory processes are impaired in patients with AD. The author examined the inhibition of return(i.e., automatically evoked inhibition; IOR) and flanker task(i.e., intentionally evoked inhibition) in a group of 15 patients with mild AD and 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Patients with mild AD exhibited significant IOR effects. A planned comparison revealed that unlike the HC, who exhibited significant IOR effects at all stimulus onset asynchrony(SOA), patients with mild AD exhibited significant IOR effects only at 800ms SOA. Further, the HC and patients with mild AD demonstrated significant inhibition with respect to the flanker task. These findings suggested that in the early stages of AD, automatic inhibitory processes may be intact whereas controlled inhibitory processes may be impaired. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies were discussed.
The aims of this study were to examine the relationships among mindfulness, trait anger and irrational beliefs and to determine the relative contributions of sub-factors of mindfulness to trait anger and irrational beliefs. In addition, we investigated whether mindfulness uniquely contributed to trait anger after controlling for irrational beliefs. We asked 297 college students to complete questionnaires including the Mindfulness Scale(Park, 2005), Irrational Belief Test(Jones, 1969) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean version(STAXI-K). The results were as follows; The correlation analysis showed statistically significant negative correlations between mindfulness and trait anger, and between mindfulness and irrational beliefs. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses demonstrated that concentration, non-judgmental acceptance, and de-centered attention exhibited a significantly negative contribution to trait anger, and that de-centered attention exhibited a negatively contribution to overall irrational beliefs. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that mindfulness uniquely contributed to trait anger after controlling for irrational beliefs. Finally, we discussed the implications and limitations of this study and provided suggestions for future studies.
The first purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of the Korean-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count(K-LIWC), a computer text analysis program, as a psychotherapy process analytical tool by analyzing both the verbatim of 22 cases of psychotherapy which used the K-LIWC as well as the clients’ levels of insight and emotional expression. The K-LIWC examined changes in the quantity related to word level which was compared with scales measuring levels of insight and emotional expression. The second purpose of this study was to determine the effect of psychotherapy based on changes in word quantity of the verbatim of 22 cases of psychotherapy which used the K-LIWC. The K-LIWC examined changes in word quantity of protocol extracted from early, middle, late part of psychotherapy in relation with Emotional processes, Cognitive processes, Physical states and functions, etc. of therapist and client. Results of this study were as follows: Positive emotions were increased significantly, while negative emotions and body states and symptoms decreased. Further, the amount of Certainty in the Cognitive processes of words increased significantly. It could be inferred that positive emotions and confidence increased owing to the expression of suppressed feelings seems to reflect the positive effect of psychotherapy. The limitations of this study and objectives of further study were also discussed.
This study was designed to examine whether delinquent adolescents exhibited deficits in recognition and proper identification of emotions in facial expressions. Thirty-three adolescents, aged 15-18 years, under probation for delinquent behaviors and 37 adolescents, aged 16-18 years, from a high school in Seoul were recruited to participate in the study. They were presented with a sequence of photographs depicting facial expressions of happiness, fearfulness, sadness, and anger, which were morphed from a neutral expression to a fully emotive expression at 2% intervals. The subjects were asked to indicate the frame in the sequence of pictures which showed emotion as well as to identify the emotion illustrated. The results demonstrated that the threshold for the correct identification of a happy facial expression was significantly higher than the other emotions and that the corresponding threshold for an angry facial expression was significantly lower than the others. Further, threshold for the correct identification of happy, fearful, and sad facial expression was significantly higher in the delinquent group as compared to the non-delinquent group. However, no significant group differences were found regarding the threshold for the identification of angry facial expressions. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with the suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of borderline personality trait and maladaptive perfectionism on suicide ideation through depression as mediator variable, as well as the degree to which suicide-related risk factors discriminate suicide attempts. A total of 709 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire related to borderline personality traits, maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and suicide ideation. In addition, a hierarchical multiple discriminant analysis was conducted to examine the relative contribution of suicide-related risk factors on attempted suicide. The results were as follow: First, the Alternative Model 1 exhibit the highest simplicity and best fitness model among theoretical model and alternative models. This model suggested that borderline personality traits have an indirectly positive effect on suicide ideation through depression; however they don't have any effect when the depression is controlled. Maladaptive perfectionism also had an indirectly positive effect on suicide ideation mediated by depression. However, rather than having no effect, it had a negative effect on suicide ideation when depression was controlled. Second, in a hierarchical multiple discriminant analysis, the suicide attempt group was discriminated in order of suicide ideation, depression, and borderline personality traits. Based on these results, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with the suggestions for subsequent research.
This study investigate predictors and comorbid disorders of Internet use among children who visited psychiatric clinic. For this purpose, Internet use, gratification, impulsivity, interpersonal difficulties, behavioral activation/inhibition system, depression were measured. In addition, final diagnoses and Internet addiction . The results showed that the comorbid disorders were not distributed significantly among high-risk Internet users however, ADHD was the most comorbid disorder among potential-risk Internet users. Also, depression predicted Internet use children with ADHD, and familial conflict and depression predicted Internet use children with depressive disorder. In addition, sensationseeking gratification and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictor among anxious children. Finally, the limitations of this study and implications for future studies were discussed.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of metacognition(MC) and an acceptance treatment on performance anxiety in a sample of undergraduates and to shed light on the mechanism of change involved. The sample consisted of 75 undergraduates who scored high both in overall metacognition and negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and threat of worry(NBUT) and 75 who scored low in both indicators. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: acceptance, suppression, or neutral treatment conditions. After undergoing an evaluation threat stress challenge, participants in each condition received the corresponding treatments. Participants then applied the instructions during and after intellectual tasks. Results demonstrated that the high MC group reported higher levels of subjective aspect of performance anxiety and cognitive interference during intellectual tasks than the low MC group. The acceptance and suppression conditions showed a greater decrease in systolic blood pressure than the neutral condition in the high MC group, while the suppression condition did so as compared with the acceptance condition in the low MC group. In the high MC group, the acceptance condition alone showed a decrease in lack of emotional clarity, whereas the suppression condition alone tended to show a slight decrease in lack of emotional clarity in the low MC group. Further, the acceptance condition reported lower levels of lack of emotional awareness than the other conditions both after receiving the treatments and during the intellectual task. With regard to the mechanism of change underlying acceptance treatment, change in lack of emotional awareness tended to fully mediate the superior effect following the acceptance treatment as compared with the neutral treatment, as indicated by systolic blood pressure. In conclusion. these results suggest the following: MC may contribute to changes in performance anxiety; acceptance may be a useful intervention for reducing performance anxiety in non-clinical samples with high MC; and the treatment effect may be mediated through enhancement in emotional awareness.
Individuals who become clinically depressed once are more likely than are their never depressed counterparts to experience a future depressive episode of depression. This finding suggest that there is a stable vulnerability factor that predispose some individuals to become depressed repeatedly over the course of their lives. Interpersonal theory of depression posit that interpersonal factors like dependency and reassurance seeking behavior may compose such vulnerability factors. In the current study, we seek to elucidate interpersonal vulnerability factors in adults who have been previously been depressed and examine their interrelations. 28 currently depressed, 24 remitted depressed, 31 matched never depressed participants completed self reported measures of interpersonal functioning. Results indicated currently depressed individuals displayed high level of interpersonal dependency and reassurance seeking behavior, and also low level of perceived social support. but there was' nt a significant difference in the interpersonal functioning between remitted depressed and never depressed. These results suggest dependency and reassurance seeking behavior have been shown to be mood-dependent, decreasing as depressive symptom abate. Implications of these findings for interpersonal functioning of depressed individuals are discussed and directions for future research are advanced.
This study investigated the perceptual sensitivity to positive and negative self-relevant information in narcissists who demonstrated both overt (i.e., grandiosity) and covert (i.e., fragility) narcissistic tendencies. Four hundred and three Korean undergraduates completed the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale (NPDS; Hwang, 1995). Thirteen students who scored high, average, and low on the NPDS were recruited as high narcissists, average, and low narcissists, respectively. The 39 participants performed a category judgment task that required them to categorize either clothing or reading material related to a noun which was presented for 500 msec on the computer screen, while ignoring a simultaneously presented adjective. The distracting adjectives were either positive self‐relevant, negative self‐relevant, or neutral. Results indicated that high narcissists exhibited extended category judgment time when negative self-relevant adjectives were presented as distracters. This indicated narcissists’ attention was captured by negative adjectives, thereby demonstrating perceptual sensitivity to negative self-relevant information in narcissists.
This study investigated the rates at which alcoholics who had been discharged from an alcohol-treatment hospital achieved six months of abstinence in an effort to determine, the factors correlating with abstinence in alcoholics. Upon discharge, we investigated the psychosocial states of 191 patients, who had been admitted and treated for alcoholism. We then determined their degree of abstinence and examined various related factors at a six months follow-up. The abstinence rate at follow up was 44% (N=77). At discharge, the abstinence and relapse groups showed significant differences in the type of discharge, steps of change, desire for abstinence, treatment completion, and family attitude. However, there was no significant differences related to physical or psychiatric problems. At the six month follow-up, all groups displayed significant differences related to their attendance at alcoholics anonymous, attendance at therapist-led abstinence treatment, and occupation as well as family attitude, and anxiety and/or depression post-discharge. Our logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the desire for abstinence, treatment completion, and family attitude, and anxiety and/or depression post-discharge significantly predicted abstinence at the six month follow-up. These results indicate therapeutic approaches and strategies that clinicians could emphasize to aide in relapse prevention and recovery in alcoholics.