바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology

A Validation Study of the Work-Family Conflict Scale with Korean women

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to verify the validity of the Work-Family Conflict scale(WFC) which was modified and developed by Cinamon and Rich(2002a). The WFC scale considers both directions, such as work to family and family to work in order to better understand women’s multiple roles in work and family. A sample survey targeted 305 married female workers who live and have more than one child under the age of 16. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 2-factor model considering of bidirectional work-family conflict. The K-WFC had high statistical figures of interitem correlation analysis and reliability. Discriminant validity test between work-family conflict and work-family enrichment revealed significantly negative correlation, so discriminant validity was supported. Concurrent validity test between WFC and the Work Satisfaction identified postulate validity, which means that the more work- family conflict increases, the more work satisfaction decreases. And predictive validity test between WFC and depression identified postulate validity. In conclusion, limitations of this study and future research directions were discussed.

keywords
다중역할, 한국 여성의 일-가족 갈등 척도, 일→가족 갈등, 가족→일 갈등, 타당화, multiple role, work-family conflict scale, work→family conflict, family→work conflict, validation

Reference

1.

교육부 (2001). 대학지원예산구조 및 지원방식 개선연구. 서울: 교육부.

2.

박순호, 김은숙 (1988). 취업주부의 일상생활활동의 시․공간적 특성. 한국인구학, 21, 113-143.

3.

손홍숙 (1994). 우리나라 주부의 여가실태와 정책과제: 대학생을 둔 주부를 중심으로. 숭의논총, 18, 327-345.

4.

손승영 (2005). 고학력 전문직여성의 노동경험과 딜레마. 한국여성학. 21, 67-97.

5.

송진영 (2009). 중년 취업남성의 다중역할 몰입과 심리적 안녕감 간의 관계-자기효능감의 매개효과를 중심으로. 한국사회복지조사연구, 22, 59-81.

6.

양옥경 (2000). 한국 가족개념에 관한 질적 연구. 한국가족복지학, 6, 69-99.

7.

윤대역 (2008). 맞벌이부부의 가정-직장 균형과 여가활동에 관한 연구. 인적자원관리연구, 15, 87-109.

8.

이상미 (2011). 기혼 남녀근로자의 직장-가정간 역할상승효과 및 선행요인 연구: 자원확장적 관점을 중심으로. 이화여자대학교 석사학위 논문.

9.

장재윤, 김혜숙 (2003). 직장-가정간 갈등이 삶의 만족 및 직무 태도에 미치는 효과에 있어서의 성차. 한국심리학회지: 사회문제, 9, 23-42.

10.

채서일 (1997). 사회과학조사방법론. 파주: 학현사.

11.

최윤정, 김계현 (2010). 대졸 기혼 직장여성의 개인특성, 환경적 지지 및 일-가족 다중역할 갈등 완화 간의 관계. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 22, 1049-1073.

12.

최인영, 최혜경 (2009). 한국 중년세대의 가치관 특성 및 유형에 관한 연구. 한국 가족관계학회지, 14, 81-109.

13.

통계청 (2009). 통계로 보는 여성의 역할.

14.

한국여성정책연구원 (2008). 여성관리자 패널조사.

15.

한남제 (1997). 한국가족제도의 변화. 서울: 일지사.

16.

허창구, 신강현, 양수현 (2010). 직장-가정 갈등이 직무탈진 및 가정만족에 미치는 영향: 성차에 따른 다집단 분석. 한국심리학회지: 여성, 15, 103-128.

17.

홍세희 (2000). 구조방정식 모형의 적합도 지수 선정기준과 그 근거. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 19, 161-177.

18.

Adams, G. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work- family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 411-420.

19.

Allen, T. D., Herst, D. E., Carly, S. B., & Marttha, S. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to family conflict: a review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 278-308.

20.

Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Full information estimation in the presence of incomplete data. In G. A. Marcoulides and R. E. Schumacker (Ed.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

21.

Aryee, S., Fields, D., & Luk, V. (1999). A cross-cultural test of a model of the work- family interface. Journal of Management, 25, 491-511.

22.

Barnett. R. C., & Hyde. J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56, 781-796.

23.

Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. C. (1980). Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in the Analysis of Covariance Structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

24.

Bets, N. (2006). Basic issues and concepts in the career development and counseling of women. In Bruce, W. & Heppner, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Career Counseling for Women (pp. 45-74). NJ: Lawrence Elbaum Associates, Inc.

25.

Blanch, A., & Aluja, A. (2009). Work, family, and personality: A study of workfamily conflict. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 520 -524.

26.

Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., Kessler, R. C., & Wethington, E. (1990). The microstructure of daily role-related stress in married couples. In J. Eckenrode & S. Gore (Eds.), Stress between work and family (pp.95-115). New York: Plenum Press.

27.

Boyer S. C., & Mosley, Jr., D. C. (2007). The relationship between core self evaluations and work and family satisfaction: The mediating role of work-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71, 265-281.

28.

Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 307-311.

29.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Ed.), Testing structural equation models. Sage, Newbury Park, California.

30.

Bruck, C. S., Allen, T. D., & Spector, P. E. (2002), “The Relation between Work-Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction: A Finer-Grained Analysis,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 336-353.

31.

Burley, K. (1989). Work-family conflict and marital adjustment in dual career couples: A comparison of three time models. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, CA.

32.

Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work -family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 169-198.

33.

Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Wayne, J. H., & Grzywacz, J. G. (2006). Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of work-family enrichment scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 131-164.

34.

Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. Ml, & Williams, Larry J. (2000). Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 249 -276.

35.

Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Wayne, J. H., & Grzywacz, J. G. (2006). Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of work-family enrichment scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 131-164.

36.

Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2002a). Profiles of attribution of importance to life roles: Implications for the work-family conflict. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 212-220.

37.

Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2002b). Gender differences in attribution of importance to life roles: Implications for the work-family conflict. Sex Roles, 47, 531-541.

38.

Cinamon, R. G. (2006). Preparing Minority Adolescents to Blend Work and Family Roles: Increasing Work-Family Conflict Management Self Efficacy. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 28, 79-94.

39.

Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2008). Work family relations: Antecedents and outcomes. Manuscript submitted for publication.

40.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

41.

Curran, P. J., West, S. G & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to non normality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 16-29.

42.

Dibenedetto, B., & Tittle, C. K. (1990). Gender and adult roles: Role commitment of women and men in ajob-family trade-off context. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 41-48.

43.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71- 75.

44.

Eagle, B. W., Miles, E. Wl., & Icenogle, M. L. (1997). Interrole conflicts and the permeability of work and family domains: are there gender differences?. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 168-84.

45.

Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. The Academy of Management Review, 25, 178-199.

46.

Enders, C. (2006). A primer on the use of modern missing data methods in psychosomatic medicine research. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 922-930.

47.

Fiske, D. W. (1949). Consistency of the factorial structure of personality ratings from different sources. Journal of Abnormal and social Psychology, 44, 329-344.

48.

Ford, M. T., Heinen, B. A., & Langkamer, K. L. (2007). Work and Family Satisfaction and Conflict: A Meta-Analysis of Cross-Domain Relations. Journal of applied psychology, 92, 57- 80.

49.

Fox, M. L., & Dwyer, D. J. (1999). An investigation of the effects of time and involvement in the relationship between stressors and work-family conflict. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 164-174.

50.

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, L. M. (1992a). Antecedents and Outcomes of Work- Family conflict: Testing a Model of the Work -Family Interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 65-78.

51.

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, L. M. (1992b). Prevalence of work-family conflict: are work and family boundaries asymmetrically permeable?. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 13, 723-729.

52.

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Barnes, G. M. (1996). Work-family conflict, gender, and health-related outcomes: A study of employed parents in two community samples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 57-69.

53.

Frone, M. R., Yardley, J. K., & Markel, K. S. (1997). Developing and testing an integrative model of the work-family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 145-167.

54.

Frone, M. R. (2000). Work-family conflict and employee psychiatric disorders: The National Co-morbidity Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 888-895.

55.

Frone, M. R. (2003). Work-family balance. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology (pp.143-162). Washington, DC: APA.

56.

Goode, W. J. (1960). A theory of role strain. American Sociological Review, 25, 483-496.

57.

Grandey, A., Cordeiro, B., & Crouter, A. (2005). A longitudinal and multi-source test of the work-family conflict and job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 305-323.

58.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources fo conflict between work and family roles, Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.

59.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1999). Research on work, family, and gender: Current status and future directions. In G. N. Powell(Eds.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 391-412). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

60.

Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., Granrose, C. S., Rabinowitz, S., & Beutell, N. J. (1989). Sources of work-family conflict among two- career couples. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 34, 133-153.

61.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work- family enrichment. The Academy of Management Review, 31, 72-92.

62.

Grzywacz, J. G. (2000). Work-family spillover and health during midlife: Is managing conflict everything? American Journal of Health Promotion, 14, 236-243.

63.

Grzywacz, J. G., & Marks, N. (2000). Family, work, work-family spillover, and problem drinking during midlife. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 336-348.

64.

Grzywacz. J. G., & Marks. N. F. (2000). Reconceptualizing the work-family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 111-126.

65.

Grzywacz, J. G., & Butler, A. B. (2005). The Impact of Job Characteristics on Work-to- Family Facilitation: Testing a Theory and Distinguishing a Construct. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 97-109.

66.

Guilford, J. P., & Zimmerman, W. S. (1949). The Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. Beverly Hills, CA: Sheridan Supply.

67.

Gutek, B., Searle, S., & Klewpa, L. (1991). Rational versus gender role explanations for work/family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology. 76, 560-568.

68.

Heather V. G. D. (2011). Work-Family Experiences among Employed Mothers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

69.

Hong, J., & Seltzer, M. M. (1995). The psychological consequences of multiple roles: The nonnormative case. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 386-398.

70.

Ilies, R., & Judge, T. A. (2003). On the heritability of job satisfaction: The mediating role of personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 750-759.

71.

John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The Big Five Inventory-Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.

72.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (2001). History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. Pervin & O. P. John’s(Ed.), Handbook of personality, theory, and research (2nd ed.) (pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford.

73.

Judge, T. A., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. (1994). Job and Life attitudes of male executives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 767-782.

74.

Judge, T. A., & Ilies, R. (2004). Affect and job satisfaction: A study of their relationship at work and at home. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 661-673.

75.

Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of cor evaluations. Journal of Applied Psycholgy, 83, 17 -34.

76.

Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational Stress. New York: Wiley.

77.

Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The Curiosity and exploration. inventory-Ⅱ: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987-998.

78.

Keene, J., & Reynolds, J. (2005). The Job Costs of Family Demands: Gender Differences in Negative Family-to-Work Spillover. Journal of Family Issues, 26, 275-299.

79.

Kessler, R. C., & MacRae, J. A. (1982). Trends in the relationship between sex and psychological distress: 1957-1976. American Sociological Review, 47, 217-227.

80.

Kinnunen, U., & Mauno, S. (1998). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict among employed women and men in Finland. Human Relations, 51, 152-177.

81.

Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Pubn.

82.

Kopelman, R. E., Greenhaus, J. J., & Connoly, T. F. (1983). A model of work, family, and inter role conflict: A construct validation study. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 32, 198-215.

83.

Kossek, E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work-family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resources approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 139 -149.

84.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.

85.

Lenaghan, J. A., Buda, R., & Eisner, A. B. (2007). An examination of the role of emotional intelligence in work and family conflict. Journal of Managerial Support, 19, 76- 94.

86.

Lobel, S. A. (1991). Allocation of Investment in Work and Family Roles: Alternative Theories and Implications for research. Academy of Management Review, 16, 507-521.

87.

Mennino, S., B. Rubin, & A. Brayfield (2005). Home-to-Job and Job-to-Home Spillover: The Impact of Company Policies and Workplace Culture. The Sociological Quarterly, 46, 107-135.

88.

Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). Convergence between measures of work-to- family and family-to-work conflict: A meta- analytic examination. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 215-232.

89.

Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons' responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.

90.

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and Validation of Work-Family conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 400-410.

91.

O’Driscoll, M. P., Ilgen, D. R., & Hildreth, K. (1992). Time devoted to job and off-job activities, interrole conflict, and affective experiences. Journal of Applied Behavior, 77, 272-279.

92.

Pleck, J. H. (1977). The work-family role system. Social Problems, 24, 417-427.

93.

Pleck, J. H., Staines, G. L., & Lang, L. (1980). Conflicts between work and family life. Monthly Labor Review, 103, 29-32.

94.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self- report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.

95.

Reitzes D., & Peter J. Burke (1983). The processes and Consequences of Role Identification among College Student. Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization, 4, 129-154.

96.

Ruderman, M. N., Ohlott, P. J., Panzer, K., & King, S. N. (2002). Benefits of Multiple Roles for Managerial Women, Academy of Management Journal, 45, 369-386.

97.

Sumer, H. C., & Knight, P. A. (2001). How do people with different attachment styles balance work and family? A personality perspective on work-family linkage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 653-663.

98.

Stainse, G. L. (1980). Spillover versus Compensations: A review of the literature on relationship between work and nonwork. Human Relations, 33, 111-129.

99.

Staines, G. L., & Pleck, J. H. (1983). The impact of work schedules on the family. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan Survey Research Center.

100.

Stephens, G. K., & Sommer, S. M. (1996). The Measurement of Work to Family Conflict. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56, 475-486.

101.

Turner R. H. (1956). Role-Taking, Role Standpoint, and Reference-Group Behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 61, 316-328.

102.

Wayne, J. H., Musisca, N., & Fleeson, W. (2004). Considering the role of personality in the work-family experience: Relationships of the big five to work-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 108-130.

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology