본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology

The relationship between explicit and implicit attachment to parent and subjective well-being in male and female university students


This study examined how the father-mother attachment and subjective well-being differ according to gender. The study also investigated the different contribution of implicit and explicit father-mother attachment to subjective well-being in university students. Participants in this study were 204 male and female university students in Seoul. The results of this study were as follows: First, There were gender difference in explicit mother avoidant attachment, implicit mother attachment and positive affect, life satisfaction. Female students felt more close to their mother in implicit and explicit attachment. The male students felt more positive affect and more satisfied with their lives. Second, explicit father-mother attachment were almost significant relationship with subjective well-being, while no relationship in implicit parent attachment and subjective well-being in male and female students. There were significant gender difference. In female students, there was not significant correlation between father-mother attachment and positive affect. When male students implicitly felt that they are secure, they felt touchable their father. Third, Only explicit father-mother attachment predicted three components of subjective well-being in both male and female. Male’s positive affect was predicted mother avoidant attachment. Parent avoidant attachment in male students and parent anxiety attachment in female influenced negative affect. Life satisfaction was predicted each poosite sex parent avoidant attachment in male and female.

parent attachment, subjective well-being, university students, explicit and implicit attachment, 부·모 애착, 주관적 안녕감, 남녀 대학생, 명시적 애착, 암묵적 애착



고영남 (2011). 대학생의 성별에 따른 부모애착, 동료애착 및 주관적 안녕감의 관계. 한국교육학연구, 17(1), 246-269.


김명소, 김혜원, 차경호 (2001). 심리적 안녕감의 구성개념분석: 한국 성인 남녀를 대상으로. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 15(2), 19-39.


김미주 (2012). 남녀 중학생의 애착과 주관적 안녕감의 관계: 애착의 명시적 및 암묵적 수준에서의 차이. 이화여자대학교 대학원 석사학위 청구논문.


김성현 (2004). 친밀 관계 경험 검사 개정판 타당화 연구: 확증적 요인분석과 문항반응 이론을 중심으로. 서울대학교 대학원 석사학위 청구논문.


김재은, 이은순, 강순화 (1997). 한국대학생의 삶의 만족도. 서울: 집문당


낱말어휘정보처리연구소 (2010). 우리말 유의어 중사전 및 우리말 반의어 사전. 서울: 낱말어휘정보처리연구소.


박은선, 이재창 (2009). 아버지애착과 지지가 대학생의 진로탐색 자기효능감과 진로탐색행동에 미치는 영향. 상담학연구, 10(2), 947-965.


박지현, 이명조 (2012). 대학생이 지각한 모의 양육태도와 심리적 안녕감의 관계에서 자기위로능력의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 발달, 25(2), 1-19.


백지숙 (2000). 대학생의 부모에 대한 애착이 자아존중감, 대학적응에 미치는 영향. 한국가정관리학회지, 18(1), 127-137.


심호규, 강문희 (2007). 부모의 애착수준이 대학생의 진로결정 자기효능감과 진로포부 그리고 진로결정수준에 미치는 영향. 심리치료, 7(2), 1-17.


안하얀, 서영석 (2010). 성인애착, 심리적 디스트레스, 대인관계문제: 피드백에 대한 반응, 정서적 대처, 사회적지지 추구의 매개효과 검증. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 22(3), 575-603.


이선이, 이여봉, 김현주 (2008). 부모와 청소년 자녀의 성별에 따른 지지적․통제적 양육행동: 5개국 비교 연구. 한국인구학, 31(2), 45-76


이현희, 김은정, 이민규 (2003). 한국판 정적 정서 및 부적 정서 척도(Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; PANAS)의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 22(4), 935- 946.


장휘숙 (2002). 청년후기의 부모에 대한 애착, 분리-개별화 및 심리사회적 적응. 한국심리학회지: 발달, 15(1),101-121.


조명한, 차경호 (1998). 삶의 질에 대한 국가 간 비교. 서울: 집문당.


조영주, 최해림 (2001). 부모와의 애착 및 심리적 독립과 성인애착의 관계. 한국 심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 13(2), 71-91.


조윤주 (2007). 생산적 활동이 여성 노인의 주관적 안녕감에 미치는 영향: 요구-조절-지지 모텔의 적용. 연세대학교 대학원 박사학위논문.


Allen, J. P., McElhaney, K. B., Kuperminc, G. P., & Jodl, K. M. (2004). Stability and change in attachment security across adolescence. Child Development, 75(6), 1792-1805.


Ayyash-Abdo, H., & Alamuddin, R. (2007). Predictors of subjective well-being among college youth in Lebanon. Journal of Social Psychology, 147(3), 265-284.


Banse, R., & Kowalick, C. (2007). Implicit attitudes towards romantic partners predict well-being in stressful life conditions: Evidence from the antenatal maternity ward. International Journal of Psychology, 42(3), 149- 157.


Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7(2), 147-178.


Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244.


Becker, B., Latendresse, S., Galen, B., & Luthar, S. (2000). Parental attachment, peer relations, and academic competence. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Chicago.


Billington, J., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2007). Cognitive style predicts entry into physical sciences and humanities: Questionnaire and performance tests of empathy and systemizing. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(3), 260-268.


Bloom, F. J., & Bloom, F., S. (1987). The psychology of separation and loss: Perspectives on development, life transitions, and clinical practice(pp.232-266). The Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass.


Bowlby, J. (1969). Object relations, dependency, and attachment: A theoretical review of the infant-mother relationship. Child Development, 40(4), 969-1025.


Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.


Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998) Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp.46-76). New York: Guilford Press.


Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1), 3-35.


Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. InM. Lewis and J. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp.447-460). New York: Guilford Press.


Cabrera, N., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71(1), 127-136.


Creasey, G., Kershaw, K., & Boston, A. (1999). Conflict management with friends and romantic partners: The role of attachment and negative mood regulation expectancies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(5), 523-543.


Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: the science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34- 43.


Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.


Dindia, K., & Allen, M. (1992). Sex differences in self-disclosure: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1). 106-124.


Feeney, J. A., Noller, P., & Hanrahan, M. (1994). Assessing adult attachment: Developments in the conceptualization of security and insecurity. In M. B. Sperling & W. H. Berman (Eds.), Attachment in adults: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp.128-152). New York: Guilford Press.


Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 350-365.


Fujita, F., Diener, E., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(3), 427-434.


Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 293-301.


Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480.


Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 197-216.


Grossmann, K., Grossmann, K. E., Fremmer- Bombik, E., Kindler, H., Scheuerer-Englisch, H., & Zimmermann, P. (2002). The uniqueness of the child-father attachment relationship: Fathers' sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16‐year longitudinal study. Social Development, 11(3), 301- 337.


Haller, M., & Hadler, M. (2006). How social relations and structures can produce happiness and unhappiness: An international comparative analysis. Social Indicators Research, 75(2), 169-216.


Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 511-524.


Kenny, M. E. (1987). The extent and function of parental attachment among first-year college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(1), 17-29.


Kerr, L., Melly, A. M., Travea, L., & Pole, M. (2003). The relationship of emotional expression and experience to adult attachment styles. Individual Difference Research, 1(2), 108- 123.


Koo, J., Rie, J. & Park, K. (2004). Age and gender differences in affect and subjective well-being. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 4(1), 268-270.


Lamb, M. E. (1976b). Interaction between two-year-olds and their mothers and fathers. Psychological Reports, 38(2), 447-450.


Lapsely, D. K., Rice, K. G., & FitzGerald, D. P. (1990). Adolescent attachment, identity and adjustment to college; Implications for the continuity of adaptation hypothsis. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68(5), 561-565.


Ling, X., Jiang, G., & Xia, Q. (2008). Relationship between normal university freshmen’s adult attachment towards different subjects and subjective well-being. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16(1), 71-73.


Lopez, F. G. (1989). Current family dynamics, trait anxiety, and academic adjustment: Test of a family-based model of vocational identity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35(1), 76-87.


Main, M., & Goldwyn, R. (1985-1995). Adult attachment interview classification and scoring system. Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkeley.


Mallinckrodt, B. (2000). Attachment, social competencies, and interpersonal process in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 10(3), 239-266.


Michalos, A. C. (1991). Life satisfaction and happiness: Global report on student well-being: Vol. 1. New York: Springer-Verlag.


Mikulincer, M., & Orbach, I. (1995). Attachment styles and repressive defensiveness: The accessibility and architecture of affective memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(1), 917-925.


Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2005). Attachment security, compassion, and altruism. Psychological Science, 14(1), 34-38.


Moore, W. (1987). Parent-adolescent separation: The construction of Adulthood by late adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 23(2), 298- 307.


Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84(3), 231- 259.


Nosek, B. A. (2007). Implicit-explicit relations. Psychological Science, 16(2), 65-69.


Perlman, D. (2007). The best of times, the worst of times: The place of close relationships in psychology our daily lives. Canadian Psychology, 48(1), 7-18.


Pietromonaco, P. R., & Carnelley, K. B. (1994). Gender and working models of attachment: Consequences for perceptions of self and romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 1(1), 63-82.


Reis, H. T., & Gable, S. L. (2003). Toward a positive psychology of relationships. In C. L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: The positive person and the good life (pp.129-159). Washington, DC: APA Press.


Ren, Z., Wang, D., Yang, A., Li, M., & Higgins, L. T. (2011). Implicit and explicit measures of adult attachment to mothers in a Chinese context. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(5), 701-712.


Ross, J., & Fuertes, J. (2010). Parental attachment, interparental conflict, and young adults emotional adjustment. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(8), 1050-1077.


Snell, W. E., Miller, R. S., & Belk, S. S. (1988). Development of the Emotional Self-Disclosure Scale. Sex Roles, 18(1), 467-485.


Spangler, G., & Zimmermann, P. (1999). Attachment representation and emotion regulation in adolescents: A psychobiological perspective on internal working models. Attachment and Human-Development, 1(3), 270-290.


Suhail, K., & Chaudhry, H. R. (2004). Predictors of subjective well-being in an eastern Muslim culture. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(3), 359-376.


Torquati, J. C., & Raffaelli, M. (2004). Daily experiences of emotions and social contexts of securely and insecurely attached young adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(6), 740-758.


Veletanlic, M. (2007). Assessing attachment models using the implicit association test. Unpublished manuscript. Institutionen for beteendevetenskap, Hogskolan Kristianstad.


Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.


Wearden, A. J., Perryman, K., & Ward, V. (2006). Adult attachment, reassurance seeking and hypochondrial concerns in college students. Journal of Health Psychology, 11(6), 877-886.


Wilkinson, R. B. (2004). The role of parental and peer attachment in the psychological health and self-esteem of adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(6), 479-493.

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology