본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology

The Life and Family Relation Experience of Female Ex-offender During and After Incarceration


The purpose of this study was to explore the life and the experience of the family relation that female ex-offenders undergo during and after incarceration, and to understand its meaning and the nature. Semistructured interviews were held with 10 female ex-offenders in their 30s and 50s who had housing and education service from Korea Rehabilitation Agency in Ministry of Justice. The collected information was analyzed by the Colazzi's(1978) strategy of descriptive phenomenology data analysis. The significant statements extracted from the transcript were sorted into categories, clusters of themes, and themes. The results were composed of 22 themes, 6 clusters of themes, and 2 categories of incarceration life and family restoration after released from the prison. Clusters of themes in incarceration life was 'incarceration life without family', 'worrisome children', 'husband in my side and the other side' and clusters of themes in family restoration after released from the prison was 'along with the family after returning home', 'the heavier the yoke of mother as ex-offender', 'like it or not, he is my husband'. The discussion and implication are provided based on the result of this study.

여성출소자, 수감, 출소, 가족관계, colaizzi, 질적 분석, female ex-offender, incarceration, released from the prison, family relation, colaizzi, qualitative analysis



김두섭, 전영실 (1996). 여성 수형자 의 수형 생활 실태. 서울: 한국형사정책연구원.


김분한, 김금자, 박인숙, 이금재, 김진경, 홍정주, 이미향, 김영희, 유인영, 이희영(1999). 현상학적 연구방법의 비교고찰. 대한간호학회지, 29(6), 1208-1220.


김영천 (2006). 사이버가정학습 우수운영사례 질적연구. 대구: 한국교육학술정보원.


김인숙 (1992). 여성출소자들의 재사회화에 관한 연구. 刑事政策, 6, 9-31.


박영숙 (2007). 여성 수형자의 자녀와의 관계강화를 위한 교정복지의 방향. 교정복지연구, 10, 39-63.


법무연수원 (2014a). 범죄백서 2013. 법무연수원.


법무연수원 (2014b). 여성통계 2013. 법무연수원.


성정현, 송다영, 한정원 (2003). 이혼가족 및사별가족 아동에 대한 교사의 인식-내용분석(content analysis) 방법을 활용하여. 한국가족복지학, 11, 9-34.


신연희 (2002). 기혼여자재소자에 관한 연구: 자녀관계를 중심으로. 이화여자대학교 박사학위논문.


엄태완 (2009). 북한이탈주민의 남한이주 과정의 외상적 체험에 대한 현상학적 연구. 한국사회복지학, 61(2), 189-213.


유정이, 금명자, 이지은, 이호준, 김수리 (2006). 이혼경험에 대한 질적분석-부모의 경험과 부모자녀 관계를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 18(1), 157-176.


이수정, 양원석 (2011). 여성의 범죄자화 과정에 대한 소고. 한국심리학회지: 일반, 30(3), 909-932.


전영실 (2007). 수형자 가족관계 건강성 실태조사 및 향상방안 연구. 서울: 한국형사정책연구원.


조병준, 이희정 (2009). 여성수용자와 자녀의관계 개선을 위한 프로그램에 관한 연구:미국과 우리나라 사례들을 중심으로. 교정연구, 44, 221-241.


최영신, 황정임 (2006). 여성 출소자의 사회적응 지원 방안 연구. 연구총서 06-24. 서울: 한국형사정책연구원.


Andersen, S. H., Andersen, L. H., & Skov, P. E. (2015). Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(2), 496-509.


Arditti, J. A., & Few, A. L. (2006). Mothers'reentry into family life following incarceration. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17(1), 103-123.


Austin, J., & Irwin, J. (2001). It's about time:America's imprisonment binge. Wadsworth:Cengage Learning.


Bales, W. D., & Mears, D. P. (2008). Inmate social ties and the transition to society: Does visitation reduce recidivism?. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45(3), 287-321.


Bergseth, K. J., Jens, K. R., Bergeron-Vigesaa, L., & McDonald, T. D. (2011). Assessing the needs of women recently released from prison. Women & Criminal Justice, 21(2), 100-122.


Berman, J. (2005). Women offender transition and reentry: Gender responsive approaches to transitioning women offenders from prison to the community. Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.


Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2004). Women Offenders and the Gendered Effects of Public Policy1. Review of Policy Research, 21(1), 31-48.


Bui, H. N., & Morash, M. (2010). The impact of network relationships, prison experiences, and internal transformation on women's success after prison release. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49(1), 1-22.


Cecil, D. K., McHale, J., Strozier, A., & Pietsch, J. (2008). Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children's adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36(6), 513-521.


Chesney-Lind, M., & Pasko, L. (2003). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.


Clark, J. (1995). The impact of the prison environment on mother. The Prison Journal, 75, 306-329.


Cobbina, J. E. (2010). Reintegration success and failure: Factors impacting reintegration among incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49(3), 210-232.


Colaizzi, P. (1978). Psychological research as the phenomenologist views it. In R. Valle &M. King (Eds.), Existential-phenomenological alternatives for psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.


Dallaire, D. H. (2007). Incarcerated mothers and fathers: A comparison of risks for children and families. Family Relations, 56(5), 440-453.


Dallaire, D. H., Zeman, J. L., & Thrash, T. M. (2015). Children's experiences of maternal incarceration-specific risks: Predictions to psychological maladaptation. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(1), 109-122.


Enroos, R. (2011). Mothers in prison: between the public institution and private family relations. Child & Family Social Work, 16(1), 12-21.


Foster, H. (2012). The strains of maternal imprisonment: Importation and deprivation stressors for women and children. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(3), 221-229.


Gabel, K., & Johnston, D. (1995). Children of incarcerated parents. New York: Lexington Books.


Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children. Washington DC: US Department of Justice.


Hairston, C. (2003). Prisoners and their families. Prisoners once removed: The impact of incarceration and reentry on children, families, and communities. Washington DC: The Urban Institute Press.


Halperin, R., & Harris, J. L. (2004). Parental rights of incarcerated mothers with children in foster care: A policy vacuum. Feminist Studies, 30(2), 339-352.


Hanlon, T. E., Blatchley, R. J., Bennett-Sears, T., O'Grady, K. E., Rose, M., & Callaman, J. M. (2005). Vulnerability of children of incarcerated addict mothers: Implications for preventive intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 27(1), 67-84.


Javdani, S., Sadeh, N., & Verona, E. (2011). Expanding our lens: Female pathways to antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(8), 1324-1348.


Kazura, K. (2001). Family programming for incarcerated parents: A needs assessment among inmates. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 32(4), 67-83.


Kierkus, C. A., & Baer, D. (2002). Social Control Explanation of the Relationship between Family Structure and Delinquent Behaviour. Canadian J. Criminology, 44, 425-458.


Leapheart, P. (1997). A review of institutional programs addressing the needs of incarcerated females and their children. Masters Dissertation. Central Missouri State University, Missouri, United States.


Leverentz, A. (2010). People, places and things:How female ex-prisoners negotiate their neighborhood context. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39(6), 646-681.


Leverentz, A. (2011). Being a good daughter and sister: Families of origin in the reentry of African American female ex-prisoners. Feminist Criminology, 6, 239-267.


Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry (Vol. 75). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.


Meadows, D. H., & Wright, D. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing.


Menting, A. T., de Castro, B. O., Wijngaards-de Meij, L. D., & Matthys, W. (2014). A trial of parent training for mothers being released from incarceration and their children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(3), 381-396.


Messerschmidt, J. W. (1986). Capitalism, patriarchy, and crime: Toward a socialist feminist criminology. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.


Mills, A., & Codd, H. (2008). Prisoners' families and offender management: Mobilizing social capital. Probation Journal, 55(1), 9-24.


Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Rutter, M., & Silva, P. A. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behavior:Conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the dunedin longitudinal study. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.


Mumola, C. J. (2000). Incarcerated parents and their children. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Michigan, United States. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/iptc.pdf에서인출.


Murray. J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boy’s antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life-course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(12), 1269-1278.


Murray, J., Farrington, D. P., & Sekol, I. (2012). Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(2), 175-210.


Nesmith, A., & Ruhland, E. (2008). Children of incarcerated parents: Challenges and resiliency, in their own words. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1119-1130.


O'Brien, P. (2001). “Just like baking a cake”:Women describe the necessary ingredients for successful reentry after incarceration. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 82(3), 287-295.


O'Brien, P. (2007). Maximizing success for drug-affected women after release from prison:Examining access to and use of social services during reentry. Women & Criminal Justice, 17(2-3), 95-113.


Opsal, T. (2015). “It’s Their World, so You’ve Just Got to Get Through” Women’s experiences of parole governance. Feminist Criminology, 10(2), 188-207.


Petersilia, J. (2003). When prisoners come home:Parole and prisoner reentry. New York: Oxford University Press.


Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., Kramer, T. L., & Robbins, J. M. (2002). Parental incarceration among adolescents receiving mental health services. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 385-399.


Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers' contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 350-357.


Prendergast, M. L., Wellisch, J., & Wong, M. M. (1996). Residential treatment for women parolees following prison-based drug treatment:Treatment experiences, needs and services, outcomes. The Prison Journal, 76(3), 253-274.


Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1992). Crime and deviance in the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 63-84.


Seymour, C. B. (1998). Children with parents in prison: Child welfare policy, program, and practice issues. Child Welfare-New York, 77, 469-494.


Simmons, C. W. (2000). Children of Incarcerated Parents. Sacramento, CA: CRB.


Taylor, S. D. (1996). Women offenders and reentry issues. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28(1), 85-93.


Temin, C. E. (2001). Let us consider the children. Corrections Today, 63(1), 66-69.


Turanovic, J. J., Rodriguez, N., & Pratt, T. C. (2012). The Collateral Consequences Of Incarceration Revisited: A Qualitative Analysis Of The Effects On Caregivers Of Children Of Incarcerated Parents. Criminology, 50(4), 913-959.


Visher, C. A., Knight, C. R., Chalfin, A., & Roman, J. K. (2009). The Impact of marital and relationship status on social outcomes for returning prisoners. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.


Wildeman, C., & Turney, K. (2014). Positive, negative, or null? The effects of maternal incarceration on children’s behavioral problems. Demography, 51(3), 1041-1068.


Wolff, N., & Draine, J. (2004). Dynamics of social capital of prisoners and community reentry:Ties that bind?. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 10(3), 457-490.


Young, D., & Smith, C. J. (2000). When moms are incarcerated: The needs of children, mothers, and caregivers. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 81(2), 130-141.

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology