본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology

The Mediating Effect of Subtypes of Rumination on the Relationship between Perceived Gender Discrimination and Depression: Intrusive and Deliberate Rumination


The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of intrusive and deliberate rumination on the relationship between perceived gender discrimination and depression. For this purpose, two models were established: a hypothesized model and a comparison model. A total of 221 employed women participated in paper-and-pencil and online surveys and responded to the scales that measured the experience of gender discrimination, intrusive and deliberate rumination, and depression. We developed a hypothesized model that included a path from perceived gender discrimination to intrusive rumination, a path from perceived gender discrimination to deliberate rumination, a path from intrusive rumination to deliberate rumination. In addition, three alternative models were developed (Model 1 not including a path from perceived gender discrimination to deliberate rumination, Model 2 not including a path from intrusive rumination to deliberate rumination, and Model 3 examining a total score of rumination as a mediator). The results showed that the mediating effect of intrusive rumination on the relationship between perceived gender discrimination and depression was signifiant. Further, the path that perceived gender discrimination led to depression by dual mediating effects of intrusive rumination and deliberate rumination was significant. Such findings implied that perceived discrimination was associated with depression thought intrusive rumination, but, if intrusive rumination turned to deliberate rumination, it could decrease a level of depression. The implications for counseling and future research and limitations of this study were discussed.

성차별경험, 침습적 반추, 의도적 반추, 우울, Perceived gender discrimination, intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, depression



김광일, 김재환, 원호택 (1984). 간이정신진단검사. 중앙적성출판부.


김소정, 김지혜, 윤세창 (2010). 한국판 반추적 반응 척도(K-RRS)의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 29(1), 1-19.


김은하, 김지수, 박한솔, 김도연, 김수용 (2017). 직장 내 성차별 경험, 정당한 세상에 대한 믿음, 우울에 대한 연구: 척도 개발 및 매개효과 분석. 한국심리학회지: 여성, 22 (4), 643-447.


김수한, 신동은 (2014). 기업내 여성관리자의 성차별 및 성희롱 경험. 한국사회학회 사회학대학 논문집, 12, 149-167.


김태국, 정은의 (2014). 북한이탈주민의 외상경험 이후 경과시간과 외상 후 성장. 한국심리학회 학술대회자료집, 257.


남녀고용평등 국민의식 (2011). 남녀고용차별에 대한 인식과 남녀고용차별경험 여부. http://www.kefplaza.com/labor/om/employ_view.jsp?nodeid=141&idx=9951.


박애실 (2016). 외상 후 인지가 외상 후 성장에 미치는 영향: 침습적 반추와 의도적 반추의 이중매개효과와 적응적 인지적 정서조절전략의 조절된 매개효과 검증. 상담학연구, 17(5), 181-200.


박지현, 탁진숙 (2008). 여성종업원의 조직 내 성차별 지각이 경력몰입과 이직의도에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 21(2), 245-263.


손봉석 (2012). 女직장인 86%...“이건 성차별”. http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=201205021135321.


안현의, 주혜선, 민지원, 심기선 (2013). 한국판 사건관련 반추 척도(K-ERRI)의 타당화. 인지행동치료, 13(1), 149-172.


양귀화, 김종남 (2014). 외상 후 성장 과정에 대한 분석. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 19(4), 1041-1065.


우종필 (2012). 우종필 교수의 구조방정식모델 개념과 이해. 한나래아카데미


이동훈, 이수연, 윤기원, 김시형, 최수정 (2017). 성별에 따른 외상사건 경험이 PTSD 증상 및 외상 후 성장과의 관계에 미치는 영향: 반추의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 29(1), 227-253.


이소연, 신민섭, 김은정 (2010). 반추적․반성적․경험적 자기초점화가 우울 기분에 미치는 영향. 인지행동치료, 10(1), 75-95.


유희정 (2014). 탄력성과 고통지각이 외상 후 성장에 미치는 영향에서 사회적 지지와 의도적 반추의 매개효과. 상담학연구, 15 (1), 59-85.


전선영, 김은정 (2013). 대학생의 반추 하위유형들(몰두와 반성)과 우울 증상간의 관계: 회피의 매개효과. 인지행동치료, 13(2), 285-306.


조선화, 강영신 (2015). 애도 회피에 따른 침투적 반추가 심리적 성장에 이르는 과정에서 의도적 반추 및 자기 노출의 역할. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 27(3), 641-663.


조한로, 정남운 (2017). 침습적 반추, 의도적 반추 및 정서인식명확성이 외상 후 성장에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 22(2), 433-455.


홍세희 (2000). 구조방정식 모형의 적합도 지수 선정 기준과 그 근거. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 19(1), 243-264.


Basford, T. E., Offermann, L. R., & Behrend, T. S. (2014). Do you see what I see? Perceptions of gender microaggressions in the workplace. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(3), 340-349.


Borders, A., & Liang, C. T. H. (2011). Rumination partially mediates the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination, emotional distress, and aggression. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(2), 125-133.


Burke, R. J., & Mikkelson, A. (2005). Gender differences in policing: Signs of progress? Employee Relations, 27(4), 425-436.


Burwell, R. A., & Shirk, S. R. (2007). Subtypes of rumination in adolescence: Associations between brooding, reflection, depressive symptoms, and coping. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(1), 56-65.


Calhoun, L. G., Cann, A., Tedeschi, R. G., & McMillan, J. (2000). A correlational test of the relationship between posttraumatic growth, religion, and cognitive processing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(3), 521-527.


Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., & Solomon, D. T. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and depreciation as independent predictors ofwell-being. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 15, 1-16.


Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., Triplett, K. N., Vishnevsky, T., & Lindstrom, C. M. (2011). Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: The Event Related Rumination Inventory. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping: An International Journal, 24(2), 137-156.


Carter, R. T., Forshty, J. M., Mazzula, S. L., & Williams, B. (2005). Racial discrimination and race-based traumatic stress: An exploratory investigation. In R. T. Carter (Ed.), Handbook of racial-cultural psychological and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2) (pp. 447-476). Haboken, NJ: Wiley.


Derogatis, L. R., & Cleary, P. A. (1977). Confirmation of the dimensional structure of the SCL-90: a study in construct validation. Journal of clinical psychology, 33(4), 981-989.


Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 264-273.


Fischer, A. R., & Bolton Holz, K. (2010). Testing a model of women’s personal sense of justice, control, well-being, and distress in the context of sexist discrimination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(3), 297-310.


Franklin, A. J., & Boyd-Franklin, N. (2000). Invisibility syndrome: A clinical model of the effects of racism on African-American males. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1), 33-41.


Johnson, D. P., & Whisman, M. A. (2013). Gender differences in rumination: A meta- analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(4), 367-374.


Gibbons, F. X., Kingsbury, J. H., Weng, C., Gerrard, M., & Cutrona, C., Wills, T. A., & Stock, M. (2014). Effects of perceived racial discrimination on health status and health behavior: A differential mediation hypothesis. Health Psychology, 33(1), 11-19.


Greenberg, M. A. (1995). Cognitive processing of traumas: The role of intrusive thoughts and reappraisals. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(14), 1262-1296.


Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2002). Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: Reliability, validity, and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescence Psychology, 31(4), 491-504.


Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Nolen-Hoekseman, S., & Dovidio, J. (2009). How does stigma “get under the skin”?: The mediating role of emotion regulation. Psychological Science, 20(1), 1282-1289.


Hirsch, J. K., Visser, P. L., Chang, E. C., & Jeglic, E. L. (2012). Race and ethnic differences in hope and hopelessness as moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Journal of American College Health, 60(2), 115-125.


Kessler, R. C., Berblund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Achieves of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593-602.


King, K. R. (2005). Why is discrimination stressful? The mediating role of cognitive appraisal. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11(3), 202-212.


Klonoff, E. A., & Landrine, H. (1995). The schedule of sexist events. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16(4), 439-470.


Liang, C. T. H., & Borders, A. (2012). Beliefs in an unjust world mediate the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and psychological functioning.. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 528-533.


Lyubomirsky, S., Layous, K., Chancellor, J., & Nelson, S. K. (2015). Thinking about rumination: The scholarly contributions and intellectual legacy of Susan Nolen-Hoeksema. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 1-22.


Mazzula, S. L., & Nadal, K. L. (2015). Racial microaggressions, whiteness, and feminist therapy. Women & Therapy, 38(3-4), 308-326.


Marroquin, B., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2015). Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: Close relationships as social context and influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(5), 836-855.


Miranda, R., Polanco-Roman, L., Tsypes, A., & Valderrama, J. (2013). Perceived discrimination, ruminative subtypes, and risk for depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19(4), 395-403.


Moradi, B., & Hasan, N. T. (2004). Arab American persons’ reported experiences of discrimination and mental health: The mediating roles of personal control. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(4), 418-428.


National Health of Mental Health (2016). Major Depression. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression.shtml


Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 504-511.


Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender differences in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061-1072.


Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., & Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 198-207.


Owen, J., Tao, K., & Rodolfa, E. (2010). Microaggresions and women in short-term psychotherapy: Initial evidence. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(7), 923-946.


Paradies, Y. (2006). A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. Ethnicity and Health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 888-901.


Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531-554.


Pieterse, A. L., Carter, R. T., Evans, S. A., & Walter, R. A. (2010). An exploratory examination of the associations among racial and ethnic discrimination, racial climate, and trauma-related symptoms in a college student population. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 255-263.


Raes, F., & Hermans, D. (2008). On the mediating role of subtypes of rumination in the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressed mood: Brooding versus reflection. Depression and Anxiety, 25(12), 1067-1070.


Rogers, W. M., & Schmit, N. (2004). Parameter recovery and model fit using multidimensional composites: A comparison of four empirical parceling algorithms. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 379-412.


Sanchez-Hucles, J. V. (1996). Racism: Emotional abusiveness and psychological trauma for ethnic minorities. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 1(2), 69-87.


Sanders-Phillips, K. (2009). Racial discrimination: A continuum of violence exposure for children of color. Clinical Child Family Psychology Review, 12(2), 174-195.


Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., Postmes, T., & Garcia, A. (2014). The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 921-948.


Shrout P, E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422-445.


Szymanski, D. M., Dunn, T. L., & Ikizler, A. S. (2014). Multiple minority stressors and psychological distress among sexual minority women: The roles of rumination and maladaptive coping. Journal of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1, 412-421.


Szymanski, D. M., & Stewart, D. N. (201). Racism and sexism as correlates of African American women’s psychological distress. Sex Roles, 63(3-4), 226-238.


Taku, K., Calhoun, L. G., Cann, A., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2008). The role of rumination in the coexistence of distress and posttraumatic growth among bereaved Japanese university students. Death Studies, 32, 428-444


Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1-18.


Tedeschi, R. G., & McNally, R. J. (2011). Can we facilitate posttraumatic growth in combat veterans? The American Psychology, 66(4), 19-24.


Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A Psychometric Analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 27(3), 247-259.


Wang, S. B., & Borders, A. (2017). Rumination mediates the associations between sexual minority stressors and disordered eating, particularly for men. Eating and Weight Disorders, 22(4), 699-706.


Wei, M., Ku, T. Y., Russell, D. W., Mallinckrodt, B., & Liao, K. Y. (2008). Moderating effects of three coping strategies and self-esteem on perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms: A minority stress model for Asian international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(4), 451-462.


Weinstock, L. M., & Whisman, M. A. (2007). Rumination and excessive reassurance-seeking in depression: A cognitive-interpersonal integration. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 333-342.


West, S. G., Finch, J. F., Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with non-normal variables: Problems and remedies. In Hoyle R (ed). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 56-75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

The Korean Journal of Woman Psychology