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DSM 진단기준의 충족 여부 및 사건의직, 간접 경험 여부에 따른 심리적 기능의 차이

Differences in psychological functioning associated with a traumatic event based on DSM diagnosis (criterion vs. non-criterion) and types of exposure (direct vs. indirect)

초록

본 연구에서는 일반 성인이 경험한 외상사건의 유형을 DSM 진단기준의 충족 여부와 사건의 직, 간접 경험 여부에 따라 분류하여 심리적 기능의 차이를 파악하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 전국에 거주하는 성인 1,000명을 대상으로 자료를 수집하여 분석이 가능한 828명의 자료를 구조방정식 모형을 통해 분석하였다. 연구결과, 직접경험사건이 간접경험사건보다 PTSD 증상의 하위요인인 과각성, 심리적 디스트레스, 정서조절곤란의 증상이 더 높은 것으로 나타났고, 삶의 만족도는 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 진단기준-직접경험사건은 비진단기준-간접경험사건보다 PTSD 증상의 하위요인인 과각성, 회피, 침습과 심리적 디스트레스, 정서조절곤란을 더 많이 유발하는 것으로 나타났으나, 삶의 만족도에서는 차이가 확인되지 않았다. 또한, 진단기준-직접경험사건은 진단기준-간접경험사건보다 심리적 디스트레스를 더 유발하는 것으로 나타났다. 또 다른 결과에서는 비진단기준-직접경험사건은 비진단기준-간접경험사건보다 PTSD 증상의 하위요인인 과각성, 회피와 심리적 디스트레스, 정서조절곤란을 더 많이 유발하고, 삶의 만족도는 더 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 비진단기준-직접경험사건은 진단기준-간접경험사건보다 삶의 만족도가 더 낮은 것으로 확인되었다. 연구결과를 토대로 논의 및 시사점을 제시하였다.

keywords
adult, criterion event, non-criterion event, directly experienced event, indirectly experienced event, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, emotion regulation difficulties, life satisfaction, 성인, 진단 및 비진단기준사건, 직간접경험사건, PTSD 하위요인, 심리적 디스트레스, 정서조절곤란, 삶의 만족도

Abstract

Differences in psychological functioning associated with a traumatic event were examined via structural equation modeling based on two criteria: 1) whether the traumatic event meets DSM criteria (i.e., criterion vs. non-criterion), and 2) types of exposure to a traumatic event (direct vs. indirect). 828 adults participated, and focus was given to four psychological functionings: hyperarousal, psychological distress, emotional regulation difficulties, and life satisfaction. Results indicate that direct traumatic experience shows greater relevance to higher level hyperarousal, psychological distress, emotional regulation difficulties, and lower life satisfaction both in criterion and non-criterion groups. However, when associated with DSM diagnosis, the impact of direct exposure was not clear in terms of life satisfaction. For example, no difference in life satisfaction was identified between criterion direct exposure and non-criterion indirect exposure, while non-criterion direct exposure still showed lower life satisfaction as compared to non-criterion indirect exposure. Implication and future research direction were further discussed.

keywords
adult, criterion event, non-criterion event, directly experienced event, indirectly experienced event, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, emotion regulation difficulties, life satisfaction, 성인, 진단 및 비진단기준사건, 직간접경험사건, PTSD 하위요인, 심리적 디스트레스, 정서조절곤란, 삶의 만족도

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