본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기


A Classification Study of Korean Retirees Based on the Meaning of Work


This study was conducted to classify Korean retirees based on what work means for them, looking specifically at its four factors (financial, social-contact, personal, and generativity). The study also explored whether there are significant differences in the resources (health, financial, psychological, and social support) and life satisfaction among different subgroups of retirees. For this study, data from 453 questionnaires were collected from Korean retirees over age 55, who had worked more than 10 years before retiring and were now searching for jobs. A cluster analysis of their responses on the 12-item Meaning of Work Scale showed it was statistically reasonable to classify the retirees into 4 clusters, as follows: “economic need type,” “generativity type,” “continuity seeking type,” and “unmotivated type.” Furthermore, there were significant differences in resources and life satisfaction among these four types. The continuity seeking type, which had high scores in all 4 factors, was the healthiest subgroup, psychologically and physically. The generativity type, which had the highest score in the generativity factor, was relatively well-off with regard to financial resources and life satisfaction. In contrast, the economic need type, which had the highest financial factor score, showed the lowest financial resources, social supports, and life satisfaction. Finally, the unmotivated type, with low scores on all the factors, was the high-risk group, with the lowest rating on perceived health and on psychological resources. In addition, generativity was found to be positively related to high financial resources and life satisfaction in the aged.

retirees, work meaning, cluster analysis, generativity, health, social support, financial resources, life satisfaction, 고령자, 일의 의미, 군집분석, 생성감, 삶의 만족, 건강, 사회적 지지, 근로 동기



김미령 (2004). 미국여성 노인의 우울증에 영향을 미치는 요인: 배우자유무에 따른 비교를 중심으로. 한국노년학, 147-164.


김애순 (2000). 은퇴와 노년기 일의 의미. 노인복지정책연구, 17, 163-189.


박경숙 (2003). 55세 이상 고령자의 노동시장 이탈과정: 은퇴의 유형화에 대한함의. 한국노동연구원 노동정책연구, 3(1), 103-140.


양희승 (2004. 11. 5). 고령화 앞으로 20년이 고비. 주간경제. 서울: LG경제연구원.


오경석 (2001). 청년, 중년, 노년의 생성감. 한국노년학, 21, 59-71.


이은희, 김금운, 한규석, 주리애 (2004). 노인의 안녕감에 미치는 생성감의 역할. 한국노년학, 24(3), 131-152


이주일, 박군석, 유 경, 김영범, 장숙랑, 윤현숙, 유희정, 김동현 (2008). 성공적인 한국 노인의 삶. 서울: 박학사.


장재윤, 이정윤, 유정이, 김원경 (2005). 고령자 취업지원 프로그램 개발: 성실프로그램. 서울: 한국산업인력공단 중앙고용정보원.


정인수 (2008). 고용지원서비스 선진화가 필요하다. 계간 고용이슈, 1(3), p.2.


장창원 (2004). 중․고령층 재취업 결정요인 분석과 정책 과제: 고령화 사회의 노동시장에서 고령층 재취업 과제를 중심으로. 한국진로교육학회, 17(2), 157-186.


정지혜 (2009). 시니어 시장의 불편한 진실과 과제. 서울: LG경제연구원


태원유, 류지성, 손민중, 조현국, 김태정, 김선빈, 이언호, 이종훈, 정권택 (2009). 실업위기의뇌관, 중고령자 고용불안 대책. 서울: 삼성경제연구소


최숙희, 강우란 (2008). 중고령자의 근로관 (Work Orientations)에 관한 국제비교. 서울: 삼성경제연구소.


황정규 (1998). 교육측정 평가의 새지평. 서울: 교육과학사


Alderfer, P. C. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 142-175.


Anderson, K. H., & Burkhauser, R. V. (1985). The retirement-health nexus: A new measure for an old puzzle. Journal of Human Resources, 20, 315-330.


Antonovsky, A., & Sagy, S. (1990). Confronting developmental tasks in the retirement transition Gerontologist, 30(3), 362-368.


Atchley, R. C. (1989). A continuity theory of normal aging. Gerontologist, 29, 183-190.


Atchley, R. C. (1999). Continuity theory, self, and social structure. In C. D. Ruff & V. W. Marshall (Eds.), Families and retirement (pp. 145-158). CA: Sage


Bambrick, P., & Bonder, B. (2005). Older adults' perceptions of work. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 24(1), 77-84.


Bandura. A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.


Bass, S. A. (2005). New models for post-retirement employment. In P. T. Beatty & R. M. S. Visser (Eds.), Thriving on an aging workforce: Strategies for organizational and systematic change (pp.161-169). Malabar, FL: Krieger.


Bosse, R., Aldwin, C. M., Levenson, M. R., & Ekerdt, D. J. (1987). Mental health differences among retirees and workers: Findings from the Normative Aging Study. Psychology and Aging, 2(4), 383-389.


Butler, R, N. (1985). Productive aging. NY: Springer. Butler, R. N. (2002). The study of productive aging. Journals of Gerontology, 57B(6), S323.


Carstensen, L. L. (1988). A life-span approach to social motivation. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp.341-364). NY: Cambridge University Press.


Carstensen, L. L. (2006). The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science, 312, 1913-1915.


Cassidy, M. L. (1985). Role conflict in the postparental period. Research on Aging, 7(3), 433-454.


de St. Aubin, E., & McAdams, D. P. (1995). The relations of generative concern and generative action to personality traits, satisfaction /happiness with life, and ego development. Journal of Adult Development, 2, 99-112.


Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.


England, G. W. (1975). The manager and his values: An international perspective from the United States, Japan, Korea, India, and Australia. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.


Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed). New York: Norton.


Fisher, B. J. (1995). Successful aging, life satisfaction and generativity in later life. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 41, 39-250.


Fisher, B., Day, M., & Collier, C. (1998). Successful aging: Volunteerism and generativity in later life. In D. E. Redburn, & R. P. McNamara (Eds.), Social gerontology. Westport, CN: Auburn House.


Florian, V. (1982). The meaning of work for physically disabled clients undergoing vocational rehabilitation. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 5, 375-377.


Gautheir, A. H., & Smeeding, T. (2001). Historical trends in the patterns of time use of older adults. OECD report


Gobeski, K. T., & Beehr, T. A. (2008). How retirees work: Predictors of different types of bridge employment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 401-425.


Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. NY: David McKay.


Henkens, K., & Tazelaar, F. (1997). Explaining retirement decision of civil servants in the Netherlands: Intentions, behavior and the discrepancy between the two. Research on Aging, 19(2), 139-173.


Higgs, P., Mein, G., Ferrie, J., Hyde, M., & Nazroo, J. (2003). Pathways to early retirement: Structure and agency in decision-making among British civil servants. Aging & Society, 23, 761-778.


Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524.


Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324.


Holahan, C. K. (1988). Relation of life goals at age 70 to activity participation and health and psychological well-being among Terman's gifted men and women. Psychology and Aging, 3, 286-291.


Jahoda, M. (1982). Employment and unemployment; A ocial-psychological analysis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.


Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2004). Aging, adult development, and work motivation. Academy of Management Review, 29, 440-458.


Kaufman, S. R. (1986). The ageless self: Sources of meaning in late life. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.


Kiesler, D. (1966). Some myths of psychotherapy research and search for a paradigm. Psychological Record, 65, 110-136.


Kim, S., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Working in retirement: The antecedents of bridge employment and its consequences for quality of life in retirement. Academy of Management Journal, 43(6), 1195-1210.


Kooij, D., De Lange, A., Jansen, P., & Dikkers, J. (2008). Older workers’ motivation to continue to work: Five meanings of age. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(4), 364-394.


Korman, A. K. (1970). Toward an hypothesis of work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 31-41.


Kotre, J. (1984). Outliving the self: Generativity and the interpretation of lives. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press.


Lachman, M. E., & Leff, R. (1989). Perceived control and intellectual functioning in the elderly: A 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 25, 722-728.


Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: future time perspective, goals, and social relationships. Psychology & Aging, 17(1), 125-140.


Lavelle, M. (2006). Work may add meaning to your later life, U.S. News & World Report, 140(22), 58-60.


Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3-13.


Lord, R. L. (2002). Traditional motivation theories and older engineers. Engineering Management Journal, 14(3), 3-7.


Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.


Maurer, T. J. (2001). Career-relevant learning and development, worker age, and beliefs about self-efficacy for development. Journal of Management, 27, 123-140.


McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1003-1015.


McNaught, W., & Barth, M. C. (1992). Are workers aged 45 and over “Good Buys?” A case study of Days Inns of America. Sloan Management Review, 33(3), 53-63.


Mertler, C. A., & Vannatta, R. A. (2001). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation. Los Angeles, CA : Pyrezak Publishing.


Mor-Borak, M. E. (1995). The meaning of work for older adults seeking employment: The generativity factor. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 41, 325–344.


Mutchler, J. E., Burr, J. A., Massagli, M. P., & Pienta, A. (1999). Work transitions and health in later life. Journal of Gerontology, 54B(5), 252-261.


Neff, W. S. (1977). Work and human behavior (2nd ed). Aldine, New York.


Orpen, C., & Pinshaw, J. (1975). An empirical examination of the need-gratification theory of job satisfaction. The Journal of Social Psychology, 86, 139-140.


Quintanilla, S. A. R. (1991). Introduction: The meaning of work. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 1(2/3), 81-89.


Peeters, M. C. W., & van Emmerik, H. (2008). An introduction to the work and well-being of older workers: From managing threats to creating opportunities. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(4), 353-363.


Perlman, H. H. (1982). The client as worker: A look at an overlooked role. In S. H. Akabas and P. A. Kurzman (Eds.), Work, workers, and work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall,


Peterson, B., & Klohnen, E. (1995). Realization of generativity in two samples of woman at midlife. Psychology and Aging, 10, 20-99.


Peterson, B., & Stewart, A. (1996). Antecedents and contexts of generativity motivation at midlife. Psychology and Aging, 11, 21-33.


Rabinowitz, S., & Hall, D. T. (1981). Changing correlates of job involvement in three career stage. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 18, 138-144.


RoperASW. (2002). Staying ahead of the curve: The AARP Work and Career Study. AARP Research Report.


Ryan, T. A. (1970). Intentional behavior: An approach to human motivation. NY: Ronald Press.


Soumerai, S. B., & Avon, J. (1983). Perceived health, life satisfaction, and activity in urban elderly: A controlled study of the impact of part-time work. Journal of Gerontology, 38, 356-362.


Sterns, H. L., & Huyck, H. (2001). The role of work in midlife, In M. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development (pp.447-486). NY: Wiley.


Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. NY: Random House.


Smyer, M. A., & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2007) The meanings of work for older workers. Generations, 31, 23-30.


Tuomi K., Ilmarinen J., Jahkola A., Katajarinne L., & Tulkki A. (1998). Work Ability Index (2nd ed.). Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.


Wang. M. (2007). Profiling retirees in the retirement transition and adjustment process: Examining the longitudinal change patterns of retirees' psychological well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 455-474.