바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

ACOMS+ 및 학술지 리포지터리 설명회

  • 한국과학기술정보연구원(KISTI) 서울분원 대회의실(별관 3층)
  • 2024년 07월 03일(수) 13:30
 

logo

공간주파수가 인종 간 얼굴인식효과에 미치는 영향 -양안경합 패러다임을 사용하여

Effects of Spatial Frequency on the Own-Race Effect using a Binocular Rivalry Paradigm

한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물 / The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, (P)1226-9654; (E)2733-466X
2013, v.25 no.2, pp.129-151
https://doi.org/10.22172/cogbio.2013.25.2.001
윤태웅 (연세대학교 인지과학 협동과정, 육군삼사관학교)
정상철 (연세대학교 인지과학 협동과정, 심리학과)
  • 다운로드 수
  • 조회수

초록

타 인종 얼굴은 자신과 동일한 인종 얼굴에 비해 인식능력이 떨어지는데, 이것을 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과라 한다. 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과는 각 인종 얼굴의 전체적 처리과정 중에서 발생하는 차이에서 비롯된다고 알려져 있고, 이러한 전체적 처리과정은 주로 낮은 공간주파수(Low Spatial Frequency: LSF) 정보를 사용하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구는 이 사실들에 기반을 두어 공간주파수 정보가 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과에 미치는 영향을 지각적 수준에서 알아보았다. 실험 1에서는 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과가 자극의 입력 수준에서 일어나는지를 알아보기 위해 양안경합 패러다임을 사용하여 참가자와 동일한 인종 얼굴자극과 타 인종 얼굴자극의 지각시간을 비교하였다. 또한, 동일한 패러다임을 사용하여 낮은 공간주파수 정보만을 포함한 얼굴자극과 높은 공간주파수 정보(High Spatial Frequency: HSF)만을 포함한 얼굴자극의 지각시간을 비교하였다. 그 결과, 동일한 인종 얼굴자극 지각 시간이 타 인종 얼굴자극 지각 시간보다 길었으며, LSF 정보만을 포함한 얼굴자극이 HSF 정보만을 포함한 얼굴자극 보다 길게 지각되었다. 실험 2에서는 얼굴에 포함된 공간주파수 정보 간의 우세관계가 양안경합 상황에서 나타나는 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과에 미치는 영향을 알아보았다. 그 결과, 참가자와 동일한 인종의 얼굴자극이 LSF 정보를 포함하고 있을 때, 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과가 강하게 나타났으며, 반대로 동일한 인종의 얼굴자극이 HSF 정보만을 포함하고 있을 때는 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과가 나타나지 않았다. 본 연구의 결과들은 낮은 공간주파수 정보가 인종 간 얼굴인식 효과에 중요한 역할을 한다는 것을 시사한다.

keywords
The own-race effect, Spatial Frequency, Binocular Rivalry, Holistic process, 인종 간 얼굴인식효과, 공간주파수, 양안경합, 전체적 처리과정

Abstract

The own-race effect (ORE) is a phenomenon of which people are better at recognizing faces of their own race (SR) compared to those of other races (OR). According to Tanaka, Kiefer, & Bukach (2004), the ORE is caused by different levels of holistic process between SR and OR faces. On the other hand, the holistic process mainly relies on low spatial frequency (LSF) information (Derulle & Fagot, 2005; Flevaris, Robertson, & Bentin, 2008; Goffaux & Rossion, 2006; Harel & Bentin, 2009). Based on those two findings, we investigated the interaction between ORE and spatial frequency at perceptual level using a binocular rivalry paradigm. In Experiment 1, we observed the ORE at perceptual level and the perceptual dominancy of LSF face over HSF face. In Experiment 2, we investigated how different spatial frequency information influenced the ORE. Through the experiments, we found that the ORE was observed only when SR face had LSF information. These results show that LSF information in SR face is an important factor of the ORE.

keywords
The own-race effect, Spatial Frequency, Binocular Rivalry, Holistic process, 인종 간 얼굴인식효과, 공간주파수, 양안경합, 전체적 처리과정

참고문헌

1.

Balcetics, E., Dunning, D., & Granot, Y. (2012). Subjective value determines initial dominance in binocular rivalry. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 122-129.

2.

Bannerman, R. L., Milders, M., Gelder, B., & Sahraie, A. (2008). Influence of emotional facial expressions on binocular rivalry. Opthalmic and Physiological Optics, 28, 317-326.

3.

Boeschoten, M. A., Kemner, C., Kenemans, J. L., & van Engeland, H. (2005). The relationship between local and global processing and the processing of high and low spatial frequencies studied by event-related potentials and source modelling. Cognitive Brain Research, 24, 228- 236.

4.

Blake, R., & Wilson, H. (2011). Binocular vision. Vision Research, 51, 754-770.

5.

Brainard, D. H. (1997). The Psychophysics Toolbox. Spatial Vision, 10(4), 433-436.

6.

Breese, B. B. (1909). Binocular rivalry. Psychological Review, 16, 410-415.

7.

Caldara, R., & Abdi, H. (2006). Simulating the “other-race” effect with autoassociative neural networks: Further evidence in favor of the face-space model. Perception, 36, 659-670.

8.

Carey, S., & Diamond, R. (1977). From piecemeal to configurational representation of faces. Science, 195, 312-314.

9.

Carey, S. (1992). Becoming a face expert, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London Series B Biological Science, 335, 95-102.

10.

Chiroro, P., & Valentine, T. (1995). An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own-race bias in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 48A, 879-894.

11.

Chong, S. C., Tadin, D., & Blake, R. (2005). Endogenous attention prolongs dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Journal of Vision, 5(11), 1004-1012.

12.

Derulle, C., & Fagot, J. (2005). Categorizing facial identities, emotions, and genders: Attention to high- and low-spatial frequencies by children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 90(2), 172-184.

13.

De Valois, R. L., & De Valois, K. K. (1990). Spatial Vision. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

14.

Eimer, M. (2000) Event-related brain potentials distinguish processing stages involved in face perception and recognition. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111, 694-705.

15.

Farah, M. J., Klein, K. L., & Levinson, K. (1995). Face recognition and within- category discrimination in prosopagnosia. Neuropsychologia, 33, 661-674.

16.

Fahle, M. (1982). Binocular rivalry: suppression depends on orientation and spatial frequency. Vision Research, 22, 787-800.

17.

Farah, M. J., Wilson, A., Drain, M., Tanaka, J. W. (1998). What is “special” about face perception? Psychological Review, 105, 482-498.

18.

Flevaris, A. V., Robertson, L. C., Bentin, S. (2008). Using spatial frequency scales for processing face features and face configuration: an ERP analysis. Brain Research, 1194, 100- 109.

19.

Gauthier, I., Tarr, M., Anderson, W., Skudlarski, P., & Gore, C. (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform ‘face area’ increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects. Nature Neuroscience, 2(6), 568-73.

20.

Goffaux, V., Jemel, B., Jacques, C., Rossion, B., & Schyns, P. (2003). ERP evidence for task modulations on face perceptual processing at diVerent spatial scales. Cognitive Science, 27, 313-325.

21.

Goffaux, V., Hault, B., Michel, C., Vuong, Q. C., & Rossion, B. (2005). The respective role of low and high spatial frequencies in supporting configural and featural processing of faces. Perception, 34, 77-86.

22.

Goffaux, V. & Rossion, B. (2006). Faces are “spatial”- Holistic face perception is supported by low spatial frequencies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 1023-1039.

23.

Golby, A. J., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Chiao, J. Y., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2001). Differential responses in the fusiform region to same-race and other race faces. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 845-850.

24.

Halit, H., Haan, M., Schyns, P., & Johnson, M. H. (2000). Modulation of event-related potentials by prototypical and atypical faces. Neuroreport, 11, 1871-1875.

25.

Halit, H., Haan, M., Schyns, P., & Johnson, M. H. (2006). Is highspatial frequency information used in the early stages of face detection? Brain Research, 1117, 154-161.

26.

Harel, A., Bentin, S. (2009). Stimulus type, level of categorization, and spatial-frequencies utilization: Implications for perceptual categorization hierarchies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35(4), 1264-1273.

27.

Hayden, A., Bhatt, R., Zieber, N., & Kangas, A. (2009). Race-based perceptual asymmetries underlying face processing in infancy. Psychonomics Bulletin Review, 16, 270-275.

28.

Haynes, J. D, Deichmann, R., & Rees, G. (2005). Eye-specific effects of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus. Nature, 438(24), 496-499.

29.

Johnson, M. H., Dziurawiec, S., Ellis, H., & Morton, J. (1991). Newborns’ preferential tracking of face-like stimuli and its subsequent decline. Cognition, 40, 1-19.

30.

Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. (1997). The Fusiform Face Area: A Module in Human Extrastriate Cortex Specialized for the Perception of Faces. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 4302-4311.

31.

Lee, S. -H., Blake, R., & Heeger, D. (2005). Traveling waves of activity in primary visual cortex during binocular rivalry. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 22-23.

32.

Levelt, W. J. M. (1965). On Binocular Rivalry, Soesterberg, the Netherlands, Institute for Perception RVOTNO.

33.

Lindsay, D. S., Jack, P. C., & Christian, M. A. (1991). Other-race face perception. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 587-589.

34.

McCarthy, G., Puce, A., Gore, J. C., & Allison T. (1997). Face-specific processing in the human fusiform gyrus. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9(5), 605-610.

35.

Maurer, D., Le Grand, R., & Mondloch, C. J. (2002). The many faces of configural processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 255- 260.

36.

Meissner, C. A., & Brigham, J. C. (2001). Thirty years of investigating the own-race advantage in memory for faces: a meta-analytic review. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 7, 3-35.

37.

Meng, M. & Tong, F. (2004). Can attention selectively bias bistable perception? Differences between binocular rivalry and ambiguous figures. Journal of Vision, 4, 539-551

38.

Michel, C., Rossion, B., Han, J., Chung, C. S., & Caldara, R. (2006). Holistic processing is finely tuned for faces of our own race. Psychological Science, 17, 608-615.

39.

Mondloch, C. J., Maurer, D., & Ahola, S. (2006). Becoming a face expert. Psychological Science, 17(11), 930-934.

40.

Muller, T. J. & Blake. R. (1989). A fresh look at the temporal dynamics of binocular rivalry. Biological Cybernetic, 61, 223-232.

41.

Noudoost, B., Adibi, M., Moeeny, A., & Esteky, H. (2005). Configural and analytical processing of familiar and unfamiliar objects. Cognitive Brain Research, 24, 436-441.

42.

Pelli, D. G. (1997). The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies. Spatial Vision, 10(4), 437-442.

43.

Pezdek, K., Blandon-Gitlin, I., & Moore, C. (2003). Children’s face recognition memory: more evidence for the cross-race effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 760-763.

44.

Polonsky, A., Blake, R., Braun, T., & Heeger, D. J. (2000). Neuronal activity in human primary visual cortex correlates with perception during binocular rivalry. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1153- 1159.

45.

Rhodes, G., Tan, S., Brake, S., & Taylor, K. (1989). Expertise and configural coding in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 80, 313-331.

46.

Rossion, B., Gauthier, I., Tarr, M., Despland, P., Bruyer, R., Linotte, S., & Crommelinck, M. (2000). The N170 occipito-temporal component is delayed and enhanced to inverted faces but not on inverted objects: an electrophysiological account of face-specific processes in the human brain. Neuroreport, 11, 69-74.

47.

Sangrioli, S., & de Schonen, S. (2004). Recognition of own-race and other-race faces by three month-old infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1219-1227.

48.

Scapinello, K. F., & Yarmey, A. D. (1970). The role of familiarity and orientation in immediate and delayed recognition of pictorial stimuli. Psychonomic Science, 21, 329-330.

49.

Slone, A. E., Brigham, J. B., & Meissner, C. A. (2000). Social and cognitive factors affecting the own-race advantage in white. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 22, 71-84.

50.

Stahl, J., Holger, W., & Schweinberger, S. R. (2008). Expertise and own-race bias in face processing: an event-related potential study. Cognitive Neuroscience and Nueropsychology, 19, 583-587.

51.

Tanaka, J. W. A race face database: Standardized set of over 200 Caucasian, African American, Asian and Hispanic faces. Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

52.

Tanaka, J. W., Kiefer, M., & Bukach, C. M. (2004). A holistic account of the own-race effect in face recognition: evidence from a cross-cultural study, Cognition, 93, B1-B9.

53.

Tong, F., Meng, M., & Blake, R. (2006). Neural bases of binocular rivalry. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 502-511.

54.

Tong, F., Nakayama, K., Vaughen, J. T., & Kanwisher, N. (1998). Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortex. Neuron, 21, 753-759.

55.

Valentine, T. (1988). Upside-down faces: a review of the effect of inversion upon face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 471-491.

56.

Valentine, T. (1991). A unified account of the effects of distinctiveness, inversion, and race in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43A(2), 161-204.

57.

van Ee, R., van Dam, L. C. J. & Brouwer, G. J. (2005). Voluntary control and the dynamics of perceptual bi-stability. Vision Research, 45, 41- 55

58.

Walker, P. M., & Tanaka, J. W. (2003). An encoding advantage for own-race versus other-race faces. Perception, 32, 1117-1125.

59.

Walker, P. M., & Hewstone, M. (2006). A perceptual discrimination investigation of the own-race effect and intergroup experience. Applied Cognitive Development, 20, 461-475.

60.

Wunderlich, G., Schneider, K. A., & Kastner, S. (2005). Neural correlates of binocular rivalry in the human lateral geniculate nucleus. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1595-1602.

61.

Yin, R. K. (1969). Looking at upside-down faces, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 141-145.

62.

Yoon, K., Hong, S., Joormann, J., Kang, P. (2009). Perception of facial expressions of emotion during binocular rivalry. Emotion, 9(2), 172-182.

한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물