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  • 한국과학기술정보연구원(KISTI) 서울분원 대회의실(별관 3층)
  • 2024년 07월 03일(수) 13:30
 

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초기 수학 능력 발달과 인지 책략 변화 관련 종단적 뇌 활동 변화 분석

Longitudinal Changes in Brain Activity Related to Maturation of Children’s Arithmetic Skills and Cognitive Strategy Use

한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물 / The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, (P)1226-9654; (E)2733-466X
2013, v.25 no.2, pp.173-200
https://doi.org/10.22172/cogbio.2013.25.2.003
조수현 (중앙대학교)
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초록

초등학교 저학년 시기에 습득하는 기초 수학 능력은 청소년기와 성인기 수학 능력의 근간이 된다. 기억에 기반한 효율적인 인지 책략(cognitive strategy)의 사용은 초기 학령기의 수학 문제 풀이 능력의 향상에 가장 크게 기여하는 요소이다. 본 연구는 초등학교 2학년부터 3학년까지 일 년 동안 수학 능력 발달과 관련한 뇌 활동의 변화를 기능적 자기 공명 영상(fMRI)을 이용하여 종단적으로 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 2학년과 비교하여 3학년 시기에 아동들의 문제 풀이의 정확도와 속도가 모두 향상되었다. 이학년 시기에 수행이나 책략 사용 면에서 발달 수준이 더 저조했던 아동들이 일 년 후 수행이나 책략 사용 면에서 더 큰 향상을 보였다. 뇌 활동 분석을 통해 아동의 수학 문제 해결 능력의 발달과 관련하여 해마 및 그 주변 영역을 포함하는 내측 측두엽(medial temporal lobe), 외측 전전두엽(lateral prefrontal cortex)과 이를 포함한 전두-두정 주의 신경망(fronto-parietal attention network), 복측 시각 피질(ventral visual stream) 영역의 중요성을 확인하였다. 이는 수학적 지식이 안정적인 기억 표상으로 저장되고 인출되는 과정에 연합 학습(associative learning)과 의미적 기억(semantic memory) 과정에 중추적 역할을 하는 내측 측두엽과 하향식 주의/인지 통제 체계(top-down attention/cognitive control system)의 역할이 중요함을 시사한다. 또한 복측 시각 피질의 활동은 숫자와 기호들을 신속하게 재인(recognize)하여 효율적으로 처리할 수 있도록 하여 문제 풀이 속도의 향상에 기여하는 것으로 해석할 수 있다.

keywords
memory, math, fMRI, children, longitudinal study, 기억, 수학, 기능성 자기 공명 영상, 아동, 종단 연구, memory, math, fMRI, children, longitudinal study

Abstract

Acquisition of basic mathematical skills during early elementary school years serves as a critical foundation for mathematical development in adolescence and adulthood. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children’s behavior and brain activity during mathematical problem solving. Over a 1 year interval, children became more accurate and faster at math problem solving. Children who performed worse at 2nd grade showed greater performance improvements at 3rd grade. Children who were lower in retrieval use for problem solving showed greater increase in retrieval use after a year. We found significant over-additive increases in activation from 2nd to 3rd grade for Addition vs. Control problem solving in the anterior temporal cortex important for semantic memory. Individuals with greater increase in retrieval use had greater activation increase in the lateral prefrontal cortex and the fronto-parietal attention network. Performance improvements were positively correlated with activation increases mainly in the medial temporal lobe and the ventral visual stream. These findings indicate that the development of mathematical problem solving is dependent on the contribution of the fronto-parietal top-down attention and medial temporal lobe memory systems. In addition, higher order visual cortex in the ventral visual stream known to be important for visual symbol recognition seems to contribute to accurate and efficient math problem solving.

keywords
memory, math, fMRI, children, longitudinal study, 기억, 수학, 기능성 자기 공명 영상, 아동, 종단 연구, memory, math, fMRI, children, longitudinal study

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