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  • 한국과학기술정보연구원(KISTI) 서울분원 대회의실(별관 3층)
  • 2024년 07월 03일(수) 13:30
 

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정서 그림의 회상에서 긍정성효과에 대한 한국 노인과 젊은이의 비교

Comparison of Korean Older and Younger Adults Concerning Positivity Effect in the Recall of Emotional Pictures

한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물 / The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, (P)1226-9654; (E)2733-466X
2011, v.23 no.1, pp.171-194
https://doi.org/10.22172/cogbio.2011.23.1.007
박명숙 (전북대학교)
박창호 (전북대학교)
  • 다운로드 수
  • 조회수

초록

본 연구는 한국 노인과 젊은이를 대상으로 그림의 정서가에 따른 회상 수행의 차이를 알아보았다. 긍정성효과는 특히 노인들이 부정적인 정보보다 긍정적인 정보를 더 잘 처리하는 현상을 가리킨다. 실험 1에서는 정적, 부적, 중립 그림들로 이루어진 슬라이드를 보는 동안 세 가지의 부호화과제를 조작하였다. 실험참가자에게 그림을 단순 제시한 통제 조건과, 각 그림의 구도를 평가하게 한 인지초점 조건에서는 젊은이는 부적 그림을 정적 그림보다 많이 기억하는 부적 편향을 보였으나, 노인은 아무 효과도 보이지 않았다. 제시된 그림의 정서가를 평가하게 한 정서초점 조건에서 젊은이뿐만 아니라 노인도 정적 그림을 부적 그림보다 더 많이 기억하는 긍정성효과를 보였다. 실험 2에서는 통제 조건으로 그림을 제시하였는데, 즉시회상 검사의 결과는 실험 1의 통제 조건의 결과와 같았다. 즉시회상 후 다시 20분이 지연된 후에 반복회상 검사를 했을 때, 젊은이는 여전히 부적 편향을 보였음에 비해 노인은 긍정성효과의 경향성을 보였다. 이는 반복 인출을 하는 동안 노인들이 부적 정보보다 정적 정보에 더 많은 주의를 주고 더 정교한 처리를 하였을 가능성을 보여주는 것으로 설명되었다. 끝으로 사회문화적 맥락과 노화에 따른 정서조절 양상의 차이에 대해 논의했다.

keywords
정서기억, 노화, 긍정성효과, 부호화과제, 반복인출, emotional memory, aging, positivity effect, encoding tasks, repeated retrieval

Abstract

In two experiments, this research examined the positivity effect in the emotional memory of Korean older and younger adults. To understand its mechanisms, this research examined age differences in the various encoding conditions and the retrieval condition. Experiment 1 manipulated three (control vs. emotion-focused vs. cognition-focused) encoding conditions during which a series of pictures with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content were presented. In the control condition and cognition-focused condition, older adults recalled a similar number of positive and negative images, whereas younger adults recalled more negative images than positive images. On the contrary, in the emotion-focused condition, older adults as well as younger adults recalled more positive images than negative images. These results suggest that a positivity effect was related to constrains of encoding tasks, particularly those that focus participants on emotional content. Experiment 2 investigated the impact of repeated retrieval on the positivity effect. After viewing a picture slide show, older and younger participants were asked to recall the pictures immediately and the recall test was given again 20 minutes later. The results of immediate recall test were almost the same to those of control condition of experiment 1. In the repeated recall test, older adults recalled marginally more positive images than negative images, whereas younger adults recalled more negative images than positive images. Thus, older adults seem to do more elaborative processing when retrieving positive information than when retrieving negative information. The pattern of this research's results, especially the absence of positivity effect in the control condition, was discussed in relation to the differences of socio-cultural contexts and emotion regulation patterns between Korean and Western cultures.

keywords
정서기억, 노화, 긍정성효과, 부호화과제, 반복인출, emotional memory, aging, positivity effect, encoding tasks, repeated retrieval

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한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물