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  • 한국과학기술정보연구원(KISTI) 서울분원 대회의실(별관 3층)
  • 2024년 07월 03일(수) 13:30
 

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시각작업기억 처리 단계에 따른 주의 자원 활용 특성

The property of attentional-resource allocation by the processing stages of visual working memory

한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물 / The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, (P)1226-9654; (E)2733-466X
2011, v.23 no.4, pp.487-504
https://doi.org/10.22172/cogbio.2011.23.4.002
강해인 (중앙대학교)
현주석 (중앙대학교)
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초록

시각작업기억의 처리 과정에는 기억 표상이 형성되고 유지되는 과정 뿐 아니라 기억된 항목에 대한 재인과 관련된 비교 과정이 포함된다(Hyun, Woodman, Vogel et al., 2006). 본 연구에서는 시각작업기억 처리 단계에 따른 주의 자원의 활용 특성을 알아보기 위해 중심시야에 제시된 자극에 대한 작업기억 처리가 진행되는 가운데 주변시야에 시점을 달리하여 촉발된 감각적 변화에 대한 변화맹 현상 발생 여부를 조사하였다. 실험 1에서 피험자들은 시야의 중심에 제시된 네 개 항목들의 색상을 기억할 것을 요구받았다(중심과제). 기억항목들이 사라지고 약 1초 경과 후 사라진 기억항목들의 색상에 대한 재인을 요구하는 검사항목이 출현하였다. 피험자는 기억항목과 검사항목 간 색상 변화 유무를 보고하는 변화탐지과제를 수행하였다. 또한 개별 시행 내에서 피험자들은 중심과제를 수행하는 동시에, 시점을 달리하여 주변시야의 자극에 발생하는 색상 변화를 탐지하도록 요구 받았다(주변과제). 중심과제의 검사자극이 제시되면 피험자들은 중심과제와 주변과제에 대한 반응을 순차적으로 보고하였다. 실험 2는 4개의 숫자가 기억항목으로, 1개의 숫자가 검사항목으로 제시되는 변형된 Sternberg의 과제(1966)가 중심과제로 제시된 점을 제외하고는 실험 1과 동일하게 진행되었다. 실험 1과 2의 결과, 중심과제의 기억항목이 사라진 직후 또는 파지되고 있을 때에 비해 검사항목이 출현한 시점과 동시에 발생한 주변자극의 색상 변화에 대한 탐지 정확도가 상대적으로 높았다. 이러한 결과는 기억항목에 대한 표상을 형성하거나 유지하는 과정에 비해 기억항목을 검사항목과 비교하는 과정은, 주의 자원의 배분에 의한 선별적 처리에 의해 크게 영향을 받지 않으며 신속하고 효율적으로 처리될 가능성을 시사한다.

keywords
시각작업기억, 초점주의, 변화맹, 비교, visual working memory, focused attention, change blindness, comparison

Abstract

The comparison between supra-threshold visual working memory (VWM) representations and sensory inputs was reported to be rapid and automatic (Hyun et al., 2009). In the present study, we examined if engaging attention to a central memory task can impair detection of a peripheral pop-out change during VWM consolidation, maintenance, and recognition. In Experiment 1, the central memory task was a change detection task where subjects remembered colors of four boxes (sample array) and were asked to report presence or absence of a color change when another set of boxes (test array) showed up. They were also asked to detect a pop-out color change among a set of colored boxes displayed at periphery while the central task was being performed. The pop-out change among the peripheral boxes was manipulated to occur immediately after the sample array of the central task disappeared or during the middle of blank duration, or at the same time as when the test array appeared. In Experiment 2, we replaced the central memory task with a short-term recognition task in which a set of four numbers was presented simultaneously as a sample, and subjects were asked to determine whether the test number was in the sample array or not. The peripheral task was the same as in Experiment 1. Results of these experiments showed that detection of a peripheral change was impaired both when the change occurred immediately after the sample array offset, and when it occurred during the middle of the blank interval. However, this impairment was not observed when the change in the peripheral task occurred simultaneously as the test array appeared. The results indicate that consolidating and maintaining memory items in VWM are resource-demanding process and thus lacking extra capacity for automatic detection of a peripheral pop-out whereas the recognition of memory items is relatively free of such capacity-limitation

keywords
시각작업기억, 초점주의, 변화맹, 비교, visual working memory, focused attention, change blindness, comparison

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한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물