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  • 2024년 07월 03일(수) 13:30


연령에 따른 인지 변화 양상

The Age-Related Changes in Cognitive Function

한국심리학회지: 인지 및 생물 / The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, (P)1226-9654; (E)2733-466X
2012, v.24 no.2, pp.127-148
이혜원 (이화여자대학교)
김선경 (이화여자대학교)
이고은 (이화여자대학교)
정유진 (이화여자대학교)
박지윤 (이화여자대학교)
  • 다운로드 수
  • 조회수


본 연구에서는 노화에 따른 인지적 변화 양상을 여러 인지 영역에 걸쳐 포괄적으로 살펴보았다. 청년, 중년, 노인의 세 연령 집단을 대상으로 다양한 검사도구와 실험과제를 사용하여 어휘력, 기억, 지각, 주의, 언어처리에서의 수행을 비교하였다. 검사도구(K-WAIS, K-MAS)를 사용해 어휘력, 작업기억, 언어적 기억, 지각 및 공간 능력을 검토했으며, 실험과제(스트룹, 어휘판단, 의미범주판단)를 사용해 선택적 주의 및 언어처리과정을 검토했다. 연구 결과 모든 영역에서 연령 증가에 따른 전반적 쇠퇴를 공통적으로 확인할 수 있었으며, 그 변화 양상은 영역 별로 차이가 있었다. 연령 증가에 따라 지각능력은 급격한 쇠퇴를 보였으나 어휘력은 상대적으로 보존되었으며, 작업 및 언어기억은 지각보다는 완만하나 역시 지속적 감소를 보였다. 실험 결과에서 반응시간의 증가 양상이 세 과제에서 일치하면서 노화에 따른 공통적 속도 저하를 보여주었으며, 오반응률에서는 과제 간 대조적 패턴을 보여 노화에 대한 민감성이 주의와 언어처리에서 차이가 있음을 보여주었다. 본 연구 결과는 노화에 따른 인지적 변화 양상에 전반적으로 공통된 부분과 영역 특수적인 부분이 공존하고 있음을 시사해준다.

인지, 노화, 연령, 노인, 청년, 어휘력, 기억, 지각, 주의, 언어, cognitive function, aging, age, older adults, young adults, vocabulary, memory, perception, attention, language


In this study, the age-related changes in cognitive function were demonstrated over various domains. Multiple tests and experiments were executed with the young, middle-aged, and older adults to compare performances of vocabulary, memory, perception, attention, and language processing. Subtests of K-WAIS and of K-MAS measured vocabulary, working memory, verbal memory, perception and spatial ability. Experimental tasks (Stroop, lexical decision, and semantic categorization) were designed for estimating selective attention and language processing. In all measurements, the overall age-related decline was observed, but the declining patterns varied across the functions. The ability in perception rapidly decreased with age whereas the ability in vocabulary was relatively preserved. Working memory and verbal memory also declined continuously by aging, but not as much as perception. The age-related increase of the reaction time indicated that age-related slowing was common to all the 3 experiments. On the contrary, the results of the error rates were different across the tasks, which means that attention and language processing differs in susceptibility to aging. The results suggest that there are common parts and domain-specific parts in the age-related changes in cognitive function.

인지, 노화, 연령, 노인, 청년, 어휘력, 기억, 지각, 주의, 언어, cognitive function, aging, age, older adults, young adults, vocabulary, memory, perception, attention, language



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