The purpose of this study is to examine the family perception according to abused children's sex, age, and abusive type. The subjects were 45 abused children including 15 physically abused, 15 neglected, and 15 physically and emotionally abused children from age 7 to 14. The results were that boys showed more noncomplient behaviors to their parents, more concerns and more rejective behaviors to examination. Girls perceived their mothers as stressors more than those of boys. School-aged children perceived their mothers as allies than those of adolescents. Adolescents showed more rejective behaviors to examination and more anger. Physically and emotionally abused children experienced more family conflicts and showed more negative resolutions, and more noncomplient behaviors than those of abused children. Neglected children showed more depressive mood than those of abused children.
This study was intended to validate and develop the driving stress scale. In a preliminary investigation, literature studies on the stress and open questionnaire were administered and examined in four regions in Korea. As a result, 121 items driving stress questionnaire were developed. In the study, this driving stress questionnaire was examined to 450 drivers located seven regions in Korea. The factors analysis revealed 5 meaningful factors[(Progress Obstacle: PO), (Traffic Circumstance: TC), (Accident & Regulation: AR), (Regulation Observance: RO), (Time Pressure: TP)] with 38 items. When internal consistency for each 5 factor was calculated, all sub-scale revealed a satisfactory level of Cronbach's α. Also, correlations with Driving Behaviour Inventory-General Driver Stress(DBI-GEN) and risk driving behaviors(speed driving, drunken driving, offence accident, defence accident) supported consistently validity of the Driving Stress Scale(DSS). Finally the result were discussed and implications are suggested for future studies.
Existing studies show that authoritarians are obedient to the powerful even though they are coercive to the weak. However, the personal relationships are very diverse even in the range of the authority relations. The purpose of this study is to explain the differences in the obedience to authority between authoritarians and non-authoritarians in some situations which have different authority-levels. This study presumed that obedience to authority is affected by their own authoritarianism. For this study, four scenarios were used to provide subjects with the situations that are different in the strength of authority. And the results demonstrated that people behave differently according to the level of authority. The result showed that in the low-authority situation authoritarians tend to obey less to the authorities than non-authoritarians. This result is different from existing ones. It follows from what has been said that the loss of authority in Korea partially comes from the double standard of the authoritarians according to the strength of authority.