This study aimed to explore factors which can predict interpersonal tolerance and intolerance. Specifically, the study examined whether tolerance and intolerance would be explained by demographic variables, social desirability, empathy (cognitive empathy and affective empathy), fear of compassion for others, social trust, and zero-sum belief. Participants in the study were 445 adults (218 males and 227 females) who completed an online survey. Data were analyzed by using hierarchical regression analyses to control the effects of demographic variables and social desirability. The results indicated that tolerance was explained by gender, subjective socioeconomic status, social desirability, cognitive empathy, and social trust. In addition, intolerance was predicted by social desirability, fears of compassion for others, and zero-sum belief. It means that the constructs of tolerance and intolerance are distinct, and different factors can predict tolerance and intolerance, respectively. Therefore, it would be necessary to develop realistic ways to promote tolerance and to prevent intolerance in order to achieve co-existence in a multicultural and diverse society.
This study used a latent growth curve models(LGCM) to examine longitudinal changes in youth’s game usage, self-control and the longitudinal mediation effect of adaptive game use in the relationship between game usage and self-control. A four-year longitudinal data of 863 adolescents from the Game User Panel Survey, provided through participation in the 2019 Game User Panel Research Conference hosted by the Korea Creative Contents Agency, was used to verify the longitudinal mediation effect of adaptive game use. SPSS 21 was used for correlation analysis, and Mplus 6.12 was used to verify the longitudinal mediation effect. The results are as follows. First, game usage, self-control and adaptive game yielded linear temporal growth. Second, latent growth curve models showed that the direct effect of game usage on self-control was insignificant, but game usage had a significant indirect effect on self-control through adaptive game use. Continuous adaptive gaming increased self-control. Third, sobel test results showed that both the initial value and change rate of adaptive game use had a full-mediation effect, confirming the longitudinal mediation effect. This study verified the longitudinal change of self-control affected by change in game usage and adaptive game use.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between women’s gender microaggression experience in the workplace and their percieved level of decent work based on the Psychology of Working Theory(PWT) among South Korean women employees. Specifically, we focused on testing the mediating role of career adaptability, an intrapersonal variable in PWT, and the moderating role of organizational culture of gender prejudice, a contextual variable in PWT, on career adaptability. Online survey data were collected from 219 South Korean women employees and Mplus 7.0 was used to test the simple mediation and moderated mediation effects based on structural equation modeling. Results indicated that there was no mediating effect of career adaptability between the relationship between gender microaggression in the workplace and decent work, however, a significant moderation effect was found by the organizational culture of gender prejudice on the mediating effect of career adaptability. Based on these results, practical implications of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The present study aimed to examine the process of materialistic pursuits by applying the escape theory of materialism(Donnelly et al, 2016). Among the six steps of Donnelly’s model, the first step is falling short of high standards, as measured by external contingencies of self-worth. The second step is blaming the self and having high aversive awareness, as measured by self-discrepancy. The third step of high aversive self-awareness is measured by low stability of self-esteem. A total of 465(262 female) college students participated in the online survey. We found that the indirect effect of external contingencies of self-worth on materialism mediated by self-discrepancy and stability of self-esteem was significant. The direct effect of external contingencies of self-worth on materialism was also significant.
The current study analyzes the usage of social network services(SNS) and their addiction along the dimension of collectivism-individualism. Additionally, the study examines the effects of individuals’ gender, extroversion, and age, which are the known variables affecting the usage of SNS. Collectivism-individualism in SNS and offline environments may not correspond to one another. Therefore, the study measured the collectivism-individualism of the two environments separately. For this purpose, we designed a measurement scale for the SNS which involves kin-nonkin distinction. The sample consisted of 253 adolescents ages thirteen to fifteen and 246 adults ages eighteen to twenty-five, summing up to 499 samples. Results indicated that individualism within the SNS showed a positive relationship with the amount of SNS usage. Furthermore, female users spent more time on SNS and showed higher addiction than males. While adults had longer experience with SNS and spent more time on it daily than adolescents, they did not show a significant difference in regards to SNS addiction. The correlation analysis indicated that collectivism-individualism between SNS and offline environments had a weak correlation. The kin individualism in SNS significantly predicted SNS addiction after controlling for the effect of age, gender, and extroversion. Taken together, these findings indicate the need for an appropriate collectivism-individualism scale that corresponds to the SNS environments. The results also suggest that kin individualism in the SNS environment can be the main factor for SNS addiction.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mother’s and adolescent’s failure mindset, along with the mediating effects of mother’s happiness and mother-adolescent open communication. For this study, self-reported data of 270 mother-adolescent dyads were analyzed using SPSS and Process macro. The results revealed that mother’s failure mindset directly predicted adolescent’s failure mindset and the mediating effect of mother-adolescent open communication was significant although the mediating effect of mother’s happiness was not significant. Furthermore, the mediation effect of mother’s failure mindset on adolescent’s failures mindset through mother’s happiness and mother-adolescent open communication was also significant. These results suggest that “failure-is-enhancing“ mindset of mother improved mother’s positive affect and parenting skills, which contributes to developing adolescent’s belief system about failure. Putting the results together, this study has its significant in that it identified the intergenerational relationship of failure mindset.
This study attempted to explore the experience related to the work-family balance of working moms during the COVID-19 period. To this end, in-depth interviews were conducted by recruiting 17 part-time and full-time working moms with at least 1 child under the age of 13. As a result of analyzing the data using the method of grounded theory, 106 concepts, 50 subcategories, and 24 categories were derived. The central phenomenon that working moms experienced in the process of work and family balance were "physical and emotional exhaustion", "anxiety and guilt about not doing well in situations of role conflicts that have to play various roles", "job crisis experienced by working mothers" and "deepening family conflict". The process of working moms overcoming the central phenomenon and achieving work-family balance was identified as five stages: the 'shock and confusion stage', the 'hard struggle stage', the 'active coping and compromise stage', the 'acceptance stage', and the 'post-traumatic growth stage'. Based on these results, discussions on the research results on the work-family balance of working mothers during the COVID-19 period and suggestions for follow-up studies were described.
This study examined the patterns of coping strategies among Koreans during COVID-19 pandemic, the influence of demographic informations(gender, age, economic level, household type), unusual experience(fear, stress of COVID, constraints of routine, income risk) on the classification of subclasses, and also analysed the differences in psychological wellbeing(life satisfaction, depression, anxiety) among the subclasses. To this end, the online survey was conducted among Korean(n=600) between April 13, 2020 and 21, when WHO had declared the pandemic. First, Latent Profile Analysis(LPA) was used to identify subclasses and suggested that the 4-class model fit the best. Second, Class memberships were predicted by gender, age, economic level, fear, stress, constraints of routine, income risk. Finally, there are differences between the Classes depending on psychological wellbeing. 'High adaptive coping group' showed the highest level of satisfaction, and 'all engagement coping group' showed the highest level of depression, anxiety. Implications and suggestions are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to conduct with the aim of examining the socio-cultural impact of the COVID-19 pandemic that swept the world around 2020, and examining the transformation of norms and social problems through this. To this end, the characteristics of changes in the socio-cultural norms of the 14th century European Black Death, a representative example of the pandemic, were derived, and based on this, the COVID-19 pandemic was analyzed. The Black Death, which cost a third of Europe's population in the 14th century, changed social norms based on existing religious authority and feudal power, leading to the transition to Enlightenment, which seeks to carve out the world with human values and human thoughts and efforts. The population decline and labor shortage also promoted commercialization and mechanization. Printing, which spread during this period, led to the popularization of knowledge, which raised the level of thinking and led to epochal scientific development, which became the foundation of the Industrial Revolution. The recent COVID-19 pandemic triggered changes in social norms like the Black Death. Changes to a rapidly spreading non-face-to-face society have spread the technological environment of metaverse, a mixture of virtual and reality. The characteristics of metaverse interacting online through avatars have changed the personality from the norm that individual identity should be composed and maintained in a single way to a free and open identity that exerts various potentials. In addition, memes that are friendly to those who have the same worldview as themselves on the metaverse worked in a way that weakened a sense of isolation in non-face-to-face situations. With the new social problems created by the newly constructed social norms, discussions were held on what there would be the conflict of leadership between the past and the new norms and unexpected new social problems.