Attention to the issue of quality of life or subjective well-being is increased among the psychologists. However most researches are with adults, this study was performed to develop the Korean Life Satisfaction Scale for Adolescence and examined the relationship the negative event to the life satisfaction. The MSLSS was administered to a sample of 420 first grade boys (mean age: 13.4) in junor high school(Y school and B school). The final version of the scale (KLSSA) demonstrated a 5-factor solution and acceptable internal consistency for the total and subscale scores. Futhermore the KLSSA subscales correlated with the criterion measure (the subscales of SIQYA). The negative life events correlated not with the life satisfaction but with the depression. Especially the life satisfaction of the subjects with negative event (death of friend due to gas explosion) was not different significantly from the others. These results and suggestions for further research were discussed.
Sexual harassment is a new social issue in Korea, although it is not a new problem for women who are its victims, Only within the past couple of years has the term sexual harassment been introduced to Korean people. It barely begins to gain legal recognition as a problem attributable to the imbalance in power relationship between women and men in the workplace and to the culture which objectifies and degrades women. Empirical documentation of the nature of the problem of harassment, however, is scare in Korea so as to clarify the concept of harassment and to provide information on antecedents and consequences, situational correlates, characteristics of victims as well as perpetrators, and typical responses to the incident of harassment. The present article summerizes the results of a survey on 311 female clerical workers on the extent of their experience of harassment and their perception of harassment as well as of related policy measures. According to the survey, almost 80% of respondents experienced sexual harassment. The longer they have been employed, the more incidents of harassment they experienced and the higher was their recognition regarding the need for policies to deal with the problem. Although the actual level of experience of harassment was not related to respondents' sex role consciousness, it was significant that women with a progressive attitude toward sex roles tended to experience less negative influences after the incident, and to have a higher perception of the need for related policies at company level. The results imply the need for further research on women's attitudes and coping mechanisms regarding sexual harassment. Remedial actions to curtail and prevent sexual harassment at work are discussed.
Social pressure or cultural atmosphere may cause undesirable behavior even under desirable attitudes. This article dealt with face-saving and group conformity pressures as the most important factors which can mislead behavior, in line with a modified Confucian model of behavioral intention. Face-saving pressure is based on Confucian culture, and group conformity pressure on collectivist culture. The present study compared Korean college students' and adults' empirical data concerning luxurious wedding preparations and bribes. It was implied that "top-down reformation," characterized by high status persons' demonstration of desirable behavior and low status persons' modeling of it, would be more effective for old generations and males who tend to be authoritarian and to stress face-saving. As for young generations and females who are susceptible to conformity, it would be more effective to change social structures to make conforming people get some loss. The change of undesirable cultural factors as well as that of individuals' beliefs is necessary for the explicit expression of desirable behavior based on reformed mind. Specifically in Korea, it was recommended that old generations had better accept the desirable values of Western culture(e.g., reasonable life style, distinction between personal and public affairs), discarding undesirable values of traditional Korean culture(e.g., authoritarianism, unreasonable life style, emphasis on forms rather than contents). Meanwhile, young generations were recommended to try to discard undesirable values of Western culture(e.g., prodigality, materialism, egoism) and instead try to pursuit desirable values of traditional Korean culture(e.g., filial piety, mutual aid).
This article explores the influence of sensation seeking motivation on juvenile delinquency of male-adolescents. A preliminary survey was perfomed to construct sensation seeking scale which fits to korean culture. According to the results of principal axis factoring, we designed 18-items short form of korean sensation seeking scale(KSSS). In the main research, subjects were 255 male high-school students whose average age was 16.6. All subjects answerd to KSSS and delinquency scale. Among the subscales of KSSS, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility, except thrill and adventure seeking behavior, correlated with all kinds of delinquency. The results of multiple regression show that these 3 subscale of KSSS account for the juvenile delinquency significantly. In that point, the importance of sensation seeking behavior as a construct which influence juvenile delinquency was discussed.
The present study was intended to investigate the effects of social role on the perception of social event('Kang Gyong-Dae' event). It was hypothesized that the social roles would be showed consistent differences to attitude toward trial of combatant polices related to the event, attribution, global attitude and the judgement of punishment level to the 'Kang Gyong-Dae' event. In order to examine this hypothesis, When the Subjects were given a treatment of social roles-a combatant police and a demonstration student, the consistent differences appeared in the interpretation of the event. As a result, In the attitude toward trial of arrested combatant polices because of the event, The combatant police roles group judged them guiltless, but the demonstration student roles group judged them guilty. In the attribution to the arresting of the polices, The combatant polices roles group was attributed to the roles, but the demonstration student roles group was attributed to the personal disposition. In the judgement of punishment level, the demonstration student roles group judged that extreme pushiment must be give to the people related to the event in comparison with the polices roles group. Thus, in this study was hypothesised that the cause of the consistent difference according to the roles was because of the attribution difference, the personal disposition or the roles. These hypotheses were all confirmed in the results.
Recently, there have been many simposiums and discussions on the quality of life in Korea. The reasons of these activated concerns on the the quality of life might be two. One is that Korea has achieved rapid economic development, providing the objective condition of putting attention on the subjectively perceived life satisfaction. The other is that many Korean are not satisfied with their current state of quality of life. This research focused upon some motivation theorists, such as Fromm, Maslow, Hebb, Fiske and Maddi, Deci, deCharms, and Csikszentmhaly. Even though these theorists have diverse research orientations and interests, their suggestions have basic common assumptions. First, they assume that people have innate tendency to feel self-determination and competency through intrinsically motivated activities. Second, with this kind of activities people can achieve the innate tendency of self-actualization. Third, this innate tendency of actualizing self can be achieved optimally under the condition of balancing between challenge provided by environment and individual capability to cope with. Forth, by doing intrinsically motivated activities, people feel the positive affects such as excitement, joy, interest, and self-worth. Finally, with this positive affects, people can increase the level of the subjunctively perceived quality of life. Therefore, in oder for Koreans to achieve high level of quality of life, Korean social structure has to change in the direction of providing many challenges for individual, and people also try to do intrinsically motivated activities according to their capability.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived alienation and individualistic/collectivistic tendency in Korean culture. The results of this study show that individualistic person tends to feel stronger degree of alienation than collectivistic one in five types of alienation(powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, social isolation, cultural alienation), And woman is more sensitive to alienation than man in such social contexts as self, interrelationship and family. The fact that individualistic person tends to feel more alienated than collectivistic person suggests that Korean society is still perceived as a collectivistic culture by individualistic person. Individualistic woman feels more alienated than individualistic man. But woman's alienation os not related with normlessness. This fact suggests that contemporary Korean society is perceived not being much changed and still man-centered society by individualistic woman. Contrary to this, individualistic man feel all types of alienation, including normlessness. This fact suggests that individualistic man perceives contemporary Korean social norm is being changed and chaotic. In addition to it, the fact that woman is experiencing strong alienation in contexts of family, interrelationship may suggest that woman tends to need more emotional support from others than man, and that relation-oriented contexts are primary sources of conflict and stress of woman.
The paper made an overview of the study of negotiation from psychological perspective. After comparing the concepts of bargaining and negotiation, the paper dealt with such problems as the history of psychological study of bargaining, experimental approach to bargaining, the variety of bargaining, psychology of negotiation, strategies and tactics of negotiation, and psychological and sociological antecedents of negotiation strategies.
The psychological approach on the analysis of Korean Mind at negotiation setting starts from the categorization of behavior based on the character of defining the negotiation, accepting and understanding of the negotiation setting. The Korean's mind of negotiation may be defined as a cognitive paradigm on negotiation. It has a great influence on Korean's behavior in the setting because it sets the boundaries and guides the negotiation setting itself, their roles, and their results. In this paper, it was emphasized that the cognitive paradigm of Korean may not be same as that of Western which focus on the differentiating and integrating the perspectives. The Western view of negotiation is to build up a common view on the agenda and eliminate the difference of perspectives in the negotiation setting which is quite different from the view of Korean. The Korean's mind of negotiation can be categorized into three types; the bias on power, the confusion on norm and reality, and the game logic seeking. These three types of Koreans' negotiation pattern function as a guiding framework to set the strategies of negotiation, to define the negotiation setting, to set their roles, and to accept the results of negotiation consciously and unconsciously.
The reasons for the poorness of psychological researchos and activities on the union relations were the union leaders distrusts of I/O psycologists and clinical pychologists and their lack of understanding about psychological services of union management. The important psychological studies and activcties were introduced, and research themes were discussed. According to the process of collective bargaining, the psychological suggestions and legal aspects of the negotiation preparations, issue developmentation of labor contrats were introduced and suggested. The use of job satisfaction survey in issue developments and further researches about the union commitment for the supports of union member were particularly important for the effective union management. The convincing psychological research themes were the traits and charateristies of the negotiators, the situational negotiation factors and the development of negotiation technigues. The frustration of power needs had influence on the radical union activities.
International negotiations are aimed to reach a consensus between two countries with different languages and cultures. Thus, cultural differencds and communication problems are essentially involved in international negotiation situations. The present article regarded international negotiation as a kind of intercultural communication, and discussed four categories of the issue: (1) negotiation and international negotiation (basic principles of negotiation, complexity of international negotiation, and culture in an international negotiation model), (2) negotiation and communication (various communications in negotiation, verbal/nonverbal communications and culture), (3) international negotiation and culture (dimensions of national culture, cultural differendes in conflict perception and conflict resolution, cultural differencds in negotiation styles, and ndgotiations under imbalancdd power relation between two countries), and (4) implications for Korea's international negotiations. Based on the discussions on over 50 countries' cultural differencds in values in power and inequality, relationship between individuals and groups, expectations of male and female roles and assertiveness, reactions in uncertain situations, and Confucian long-term orientation, it was speculated how negotiation styles of various countries can be predicted and how we can wisely cope with national differences of negotiation styles.