This study examined the involuntary retirement of executives in conglomerates based on Williams’ need-threat temporal model of ostracism(2009), which explains the psychology of individuals facing social exclusion in the stages of reflexive, reflective and resignation. In-depth interviews were conducted on 15 retirees from conglomerates, and their contents were used for phenomenological method of analysis. As a result, in the reflexive stage of need-threat temporal model of ostracism, they experienced cognitive panic and emotional panic immediately following retirement. Due to an unexpected shocking experience of retirement notice, they experienced cognitive numbness first, and repressed the following negative feelings cognitively to hide them. In the reflective stage, retirees dream of ‘a complete restoration to their best performance in the past’, but as such expectation fails, they don’t adjust to the reality more due to ‘unrealistic thought’, ‘self-deception’, and ‘shift responsibility’. In resignation stage, a long-term failure to satisfy the desire led them to experience a sense of defeat and helplessness. Such results were reviewed and compared to Williams’ need-threat temporal model of ostracism, and the implications of such result on the nation, companies and retirees in terms of the response to retirement.
This study investigated effects of Korean students’ contacts with International students on Korean college students’ multicultural competencies. This study also examined mediating effects of life satisfaction and realistic conflict perception between contacts with international students and multicultural competencies. For the purpose, 384 Korean college students completed the questionnaires including contacts, life satisfaction, realistic conflicts perception toward international students, everyday multicultural competencies, and demographic information. The results indicate that number of contacts predicts cultural self-efficacy and cultural knowledge, whereas contact diversity predicts cultural openness. Life Satisfaction predicts cultural openness, cultural self-efficacy, and cultural knowledge, and realistic conflicts perception predicts all subscales of everyday multicultural competencies scale other than cultural knowledge. Results also discovered that life satisfaction mediates the relationship between contact diversity and multicultural competencies, but realistic conflict perception did not mediate between contact diversity and multicultural competencies. Based on the results, the suggestions to enhance college students’ multicultural competencies were discussed.
The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is the most widely used instrument to measure life satisfaction. This study examined the factor structure and measurement equivalence of SWLS across age and gender in Korea. A total of 936 data were analyzed, comprising 433 college students (195 males and 238 females) and 503 middle-aged adults (237 males and 266 females). The results are as follows. Firstly, the data supported a modified single-factor model with correlations between error variances of items 4 and 5. Therefore, items 4 and 5 reflecting the past were found to share a distinct meaning with other items. Secondly, SWLS showed full strict invariance by gender, but only showed partial strict invariance between college students and middle-aged adults. These results indicate that meaningful comparisons of SWLS scores across gender may be valid, but careful attention should be paid when comparing age groups.
The present study examined patterns of co-occurrence between DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth(PTG) among Korean populations(n= 860). Latent profile analysis was used to identify subclasses and suggested that the 3-class model fit best: (1) Low PTSD/Mild PTG group (2) Low PTSD/High PTG group; (3) High PTSD/High PTG group. Class membership was predicted by demographic variables, social isolation, and frequency of traumatic experiences. Classes also differed with respect to self-destructive behaviors(binge eating, non-suicidal self-injury, and problem drinking). These findings contribute to future research about the coexisting patterns of PTSD and PTG, and to identify high-risk individuals who suffer from trauma-related problems in clinical practice.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Playfulness Scale for Adults. The Korean version of the Playfulness Scale for adults was developed by Proyer, R.T (2017) to measure the playfulness of adults. To validate the OLIW in Korean, item translation, back-translation, item analysis, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted with 406 adults in study 1. Of the results obtained from study1, three items and one factor (7 items) were discarded because they turned out to be improper. In addition, 4 factors that were not the same as the original scale were extracted. This was checked by conducting confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 336 adults in study 2. CFA supported the 4 factors structure and all 4 factors showed adequate internal consistency. To check the concurrent validity of the Korean adults playfulness scale, correlation analysis with the APS, SMAP, PSYA, and NEO Personality Assessment was conducted. It showed significant positive correlation to APS, SMAP, PSYA, and showed the similar patterns of correlation with the sub factors of NEO Personality Assessment. Adult playfulness is related to the participation frequency of leisure. In conclusion, the Korean version of the playfulness scale for adults is a valid measure of playfulness for adults in Korea. The implications, practical use and suggestions for future study were discussed.