The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between workplace bullying victimization and displaced aggression, along with the mediating effects of perceived organizational injustice and state anger. Self-reported data of 268 employees were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and Process macro. When applying the standard suggested by Leymann(1996), which defines workplace bullying victims as those who experience at least one negative act, on a weekly basis, for more than 6 months, the bullying victimization prevalence rate was 77.2%. Furthermore, although workplace bullying victimization did not directly predict displaced aggression, it significantly predicted perceived organizational injustice and state anger. Both mediators significantly predicted displaced aggression. The mediating effect of bullying victimization on displaced aggression through perceived organizational injustice and state anger subsequently was also significant. This study has its significance in that it thoroughly investigated the current state of workplace bullying victimization among people in their 20s and 30s, and helps better understand the relationship between workplace bullying victimization and displaced aggression.
Many survivors of sexual violence disclose their experience to others. When they receive negative social reactions, this can be a traumatic event for the survivor where their trust towards others is violated and can cause posttraumatic cognitions and depression. Likewise, institutional betrayal, or negative reactions from trusted institutions regarding the disclosure of sexual victimization can be a traumatic event for the survivor and is associated with depression as well. However, studies investigating the mechanism underlying the relationship between institutional betrayal and depression is yet limited. Therefore, based on cognitive behavioral theory (CBT), which is known as the most effective approach to date for understanding and treating posttraumatic symptoms, this study examined if posttraumatic cognitions mediate the relationship between institutional betrayal and depression. Questionnaires were administered to 462 women who had experienced institutional betrayal to their sexual victimization. Results showed that institutional betrayal had an effect on depression only through negative cognitions about the self and world. This suggests the importance of identifying and treating trauma-related cognitions in order to prevent or cure depression of those who had experienced institutional betrayal to their sexual victimization. Limitations and implications of this study are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was examine the depression among Mongolians in South Korea. We also determined the effect of acculturative stress and social support on depression. In this study, total of 200 adults over age 18 completed the BDI-II of Mongolian Version, Acculturative stress scale for international student, The Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Data were analyzed by using the factor analysis, correlation analysis, t-test, and hierarchical regression analysis. We used SPSS 22.0, AMOS 22.0. We found significant difference in mean scores between groups according to socio-demographic characteristics. The level of depression was high in over 3 years immigrants group (M = 8.41, SD = 9.6954), marriage immigrants group (M = 19.1, SD = 16.7649), and female groups (M = 7.61, SD = 9.2188) than compared to reference groups. Acculturative stress and social support of Mongolian immigrants had a significant impact on depression (β = .365, p <.001; β = .- 555, p <.001). There was a moderating effect of social support on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression (β = 1.080, p <.001). The limitations and implications of the study were discussed. We conclude that this study can be used to assess the depression and the mental health of Mongolians in South Korea.
The purpose of this study was to testify the relationship of parental psychological control perceived by young adults in twenties and their social anxiety, and the mediating effects of internalized shame and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness in the model. The online questionnaires were administered to 350 young adults in twenties to assess the four major variables(parental psychological control, internalized shame, ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and social anxiety). In correlation analysis, parental psychological control, social anxiety, internalized shame and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness were positively correlated. Bootstrapping method was used to test the mediating effects, and this study here is statistically significant revealing the path of parental psychological control to social anxiety by mediator such as internalized shame and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. Finally, parental psychological control-social anxiety partial mediator model was supported. As a result of the study, the higher the level of parental psychological control, the higher the level of internalized shame and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness, and subsequently the higher the level of social anxiety in twenties. The implication and limitation of this study, and future tasks were discussed.
The present study examined the relations between physical attractiveness and likability and we also investigated whether these variable’s effects differ depending on generation (young and middle-aged) × evaluator gender (male and female) × target gender (male and female). Second, when assessing these variables, we figured out whether evaluators more preferred ‘the same-sex preference’ than ‘the opposite-sex preference’. To that end, 120 college students participated in the 3D program to sample their ideal looks and bodies. Then, another 240 people (60 young men and women each, 60 middle-aged men and women each) evaluated the physical attractiveness, likeability, relationship preference, and personality of the sample. The result is that physical attractiveness is a positively related to likability. There were evaluator gender and target gender differences in the judgment of physical attractiveness, but there were generation and target gender differences in the judgment of likability. Lastly, the effect based on target-maker gender was different for evaluator gender in each factor evaluation. These results were discussed from the evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives on physical attractiveness.
This study examined the structural relationship among personal belief in a just world, presence of meaning in life, self-control, and aggression in college students. For this research, self-reported data from 427 college students were analyzed by gender, using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that personal belief in a just world predicted aggression regardless of gender. The mediating effect of self-control was non-significant among both women and men groups. The mediating effect of presence of meaning in life and self-control was significant among only women. It means that personal belief in a just world predicted presence of meaning in life and self-control, which consequently contributed to aggression among women. It is noteworthy that this study examined the concrete mechanism to reduce aggression by gender. Based on these findings, intervention strategies were discussed.
In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted on a total of 34 studies (14 academic papers, 20 dissertations in academic journals) conducted in Korea from 2000 to 2020 in order to understand the relationship between work-family conflict, work-family enhancement and social support. (N=17,530). Work-family conflict and work-family enhancement were used for analysis by dividing the direction into the case where the direction was not distinguished, the direction from work to home, and from home to work. The social support was divided into family, spouse, organization, supervisor, coworker, and not classified according to support resource, and a subgroup analysis was conducted. Depending on the type of support, a subgroup analysis was conducted by dividing into emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support. As a result of the analysis, both support resources and types showed a significant relationship with work-family conflict and work-family enhancement. It was confirmed that the most significant relationship was changed according to each sub-factor and the direction of conflict and enhancement. Based on the above research results, the implications and limitations of this study were presented and directions for future research were suggested.