The present study examined the content and changes in leader role schemas associated with ‘male’ leaders, ‘female’ leaders, and ‘good’ leaders over the past 10 years in Korea. In addition, we analyzed how the gender of the respondents affects their perception of male leaders versus female leaders as a good leader. A total of 736 Korean adults residing in the Seoul metropolitan area participated in the survey at two different time points, one in 2007, and the other in 2017. The respondents were presented with a total of 90 behavior items driven from the literature and asked to choose the items that represent male leaders, female leaders, and good leaders, respectively. We found that the chosen behavior items for male leaders versus female leaders matched closely to the typical sex role of males (i.e., being agentic) versus females (i.e., being communal). By contrast, the chosen behavior items for good leaders reflected both the male-typed roles and the female-typed roles. We also found that the role schemas associated with male leaders as well as good leaders have changed over the 10 year period. Those schemas also differed between male versus female respondents. For female leaders, however, the role schemas were found to be stable over the 10 years. We also found that the good leader schemas are more specified and variable than are the male or the female schemas. Additionally, in the 2007 survey male characteristics overlapped with good leader characteristics to a greater degree than did female characteristics. This difference was no longer observed in the 2017 survey. The observed difference in the degree of overlap between male (versus female) characteristics with good leader characteristics was attributable to the perceptions of male respondents. We discuss implications of our findings and directions for future research.
The present study examines whether fear of negative evaluation, social comparison and self-criticism mediate the relationship between insecure attachment and career indecision. Participants are 401 unemployed people in their 20s who have never had a job. The major findings of this study are as follows. First, correlation analysis indicates that both anxious attachment and avoidant attachment are positively related to fear of negative evaluation and self-criticism. Also, anxious attachment is positively correlated with social comparison, whereas avoidant attachment is negatively correlated with it. Second, both insecure attachments have significant positive correlation with career indecision. Third, it shows the respective unique mechanisms by which each of the two insecure attachment forms are related to career indecision are distinctive: Specifically, The linkage between anxious attachment and career indecision is partially mediated by self-criticism and social comparison, whereas avoidant attachment is indirectly related to career indecision through a full mediation of self-criticism and social comparison. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a woman who claims sexual assault would be evaluated more negatively, and the suspected man would be judged more leniently, when the woman is agentic. In addition, we expected that this phenomenon would occur because the agentic accuser does not conform to the ‘sexual crime victim’ stereotype or feminine norms, and considered these as mediator variables. We also postulated that male (vs. female) participants would have a less positive regard of the agentic accuser and tested participant gender’s moderating effects. Contrary to our hypothesis, participants criticized the agentic (vs. non-agentic) woman who claims sexual assault less and perceived her more positively and truthfully, and more likely to judged the suspected man to be guilty and recommended longer sentences. However, we observed the expected moderating effects of participant gender, so that male (vs. female) participants evaluated the agentic accuser more negatively. Mediation analyses yielded results on perceived truthfulness that were consistent with our hypothesis: Participants thought of agentic accuser as less feminine, which predicted less perceived truthfulness. Also, the less the agentic accuser was perceived to be feminine, male participants blamed her more while female participants had more positive impressions of her.
The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the post-traumatic growth inventory-expanded(K-PTGI-X), which has been widely used to assess posttraumatic growth. The PTGI-X is a measure of the addition of the items to measure the existential growth as the need for modification to the factors of the ‘increase of spiritual interest’ in the existing PTGI is suggested. We examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a Korean version of the PTGI-X among 625 Korean adults who have experienced trauma events. First, EFA confirmed the appropriate PTGI-X factor structure and found that the 4-factor structure was the most appropriate. Next, as a result of CFA, it was found that the model to which correlation between items was added to the 4-factor model was good. Next, testing internal consistency, CR, and AVE of the K-PTGI-X showed that PTGI-X’s items are reliable. Also, we tested the concurrent validity and discriminative validity. All of the K-PTGI-X scales significantly correlated with measures of deliberate rumination and core-belief except for the intrusive rumination. Finally, to add an understanding of K-PTGI-X, t-test according to demographic variables was conducted. Recommendations for future research and implications were discussed.
This study examined whether popular music lyrics, the new research topic, reflect changes in Koreans’ cultural orientation and whether individuals’ cultural orientation is related to the genre of popular music that they prefer. In Study 1, we content analyzed popular music lyrics from 1980 to 2018 to see if Koreans’ cultural orientations changed over time. The analysis showed that as the release dates approached the 2010s, the lyrics expressed the ideal attitudes of individualist cultures more frequently than those of collectivist cultures; this suggests that Koreans have gradually become more individualistic over time. In Study 2, we examined the relationships between individuals’ cultural orientations, preferences for various genres of popular music, and functions of music. The analysis showed that people with more collectivistic attitudes tended to prefer mid- and low-arousal music, such as Ballads and Rap/Hiphop, while those with less collectivistic attitudes preferred high-arousal music, such as Rock/Metal. This result is partly consistent with the hypothesis that collectivistic people would prefer lower to higher arousal music. In addition, our analysis showed the strongest positive relationship between collectivism and the social function of music; this result can be interpreted as indicating that collectivistic people use music to maintain good interpersonal relationships. This paper concludes by discussing the implications of these findings, the limitations of this study, and directions for further research.
This study examines the validity of the Filial Responsibility Scale-Adult (Past), developed by Jurkovic and Thirkield (1999), among Korean university students in their twenties. First, a preliminary scale consisting of 30 items was developed by translating the original scale into Korean and item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted on 249 subjects. Based on the exploratory factor analysis, items in the emotional parentification factor were either deleted or included in the other remaining factors, resulting in a two-factor model containing 15 items. In order to confirm this, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on 318 independent subjects. As a result of a confirmatory factor analysis of the two competing models - the three-factor model consisting of 30 items based on the original scale and the two-factor(emotional experience and caring behavior) model consisting of 15 items gained as a result of the exploratory factor analysis - the two-factor model showed more suitable and the original scale was revised accordingly. The convergent validity, discriminant validity and predictive validity were all found to be satisfactory. Based on such results, implications, limitations and suggestions on follow-up studies are discussed.
In Korean society, words related to misogyny are being created and spread out in the Internet communities and the Internet news posts comments. This study was conducted to investigate if exposure to misogynistic words affects misogynistic attitudes toward women. Study 1 examined the relationship between exposure of misogynistic words (the number of misogynistic words known and the level of Internet comments viewed) and explicit misogynistic attitudes. As a result, the greater the exposure of misogynistic words, the less explicit misogynistic attitudes were found among men. The result can be explained as a desensitization of stimuli caused by repetitive exposure to media. In Study 2, experiments were conducted to manipulate the exposure of misogynistic words and to identify the relationship between implicit misogynistic attitudes through implicit association tests. Results of analysis show that implicit misogyny attitude is stronger as male participants are exposed to misogynistic words. The finding of this study suggests that explicit and implicit attitudes toward misogyny can diverge. It also implies that the exposure to misogynistic words can affect men's and women's attitudes in a different manner.
Previous studies have examined the relationship between domain satisfaction and life satisfaction. However, a comprehensive investigation of satisfaction with multiple domains and their relative contributions to life satisfaction and hedonic balance are missing in the literature. And most studies were conducted in English speaking countries and only a few cross-cultural studies have been conducted. In the current research, we compared Korean and European Canadian university students to examine how domain satisfactions (satisfaction with healthy lifestyles, family relationships, appearance, financial situation, academic performance) are associated with life satisfaction and hedonic balance. We then examined the relative contributions of people’s satisfaction ratings on the life domains to their life satisfaction and hedonic balance. Positive correlations were observed between satisfaction with each of the five life domains, and life satisfaction and hedonic balance across the two cultural groups. Interestingly, satisfactions with healthy lifestyles was the dominant predictor of Koreans’ life satisfaction and hedonic balance. Satisfaction with appearance was the dominant predictor of European Canadians’ life satisfaction and hedonic balance followed by satisfaction with healthy lifestyles. Overall, these results suggest that there are common life domains that contribute to subjective well-being and that there are specific life domains that may contribute more to subjective well-being depending on the culture.
Confirmation bias is well known to be the cause of widespread misjudgment in the field of forensic decision-making. In this study, we examined the psychological mechanisms by which confirmation bias affects intentionality judgment in serious injury and death cases that combine the moral characteristics of the perpetrator and victim differently. As a result, participants perceived the case as a more typical criminal case when both the perpetrator and victim were bad people, and gave higher intention to perpetrators’ actions in these typical crimes. In particular, it was found that people with a high degree of confirmation bias highly judge the intention of the offenders in a consistent way with the stereotype of criminal cases. However, in serious criminal cases, the moderate effect of confirmation bias has disappeared and only the effect of crime typicality has existed. Finally, we discussed implications of this study and ways to reduce bias in intentionality judgment.