We examined the moderator roles of negative belief in emotional expression and emotional clarity between work-life balance and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety and somatization). Also we identified gender differences in their moderating effects. This study was based on a sample of 869 married working employees (man: 424, women: 445). Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that work-life balance, negative belief in emotional expression and emotional clarity were strongly associated with depression, anxiety and somatization. While negative belief in emotional expression significantly moderated the relationship between work-life balance and depression and anxiety, emotional clarity showed no significance. We found gender differences in moderating effects of two moderators. In specific, the only women who had more negative belief in emotional expression were more psychological symptoms in a low work-life balance situation. On the other hand, the only men who had higher emotional clarity were less depressive and anxious under the conditions of high work-life balance. We discussed about implications of these results.
The purpose of this study was to investigate a moderating effect of social work practitioners’ support between psychological crisis and social participation of divorced retired men. For this, psychological crisis, social participation, and social work practitioners’ support were completed by 248 divorced retired men registered during the last five years in Hope Job Center for the middle aged group in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the general trend of the measured variables based on the collected data, simple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between variables, and hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the moderating effect. The results of this study are as follows. First, psychological crisis was found to have a negative correlation with social participation and social work practitioners’ support. Second, social worker practitioners’ support between psychological crisis and social participation showed a significant moderating effect. Based on these findings, this study is significant in terms of providing needs for interventions of social support through methods such as programs for psychological support and education about social participation for divorced retired men.
The purpose of this study was to develop scale for the measurement of indirect traumatization occurred by social disaster and test their validity. To achieve this purpose, this study conduct a research through the following procedure. First, to develop the inventory, various responses of indirect traumatization occurred by social disaster were gathered from Korean adults participated in open questionnaire. 41 items were made. Second, exploratory factor analysis were performed and 21 items were selected in this step. The Indirect Trauma Scale of Social Disaster(ITSSD) consisted of 4 factors, each with 4-to-8 items, respectively. Four factors include ① private coping responses ② symptom responses ③ distrust responses of world ④ moral emotion cause of social perpetrators. Appropriate levels of reliability were established for the ITSSD. Third, Indirect Trauma Scale of Social Disaster was validated by confirmatory factor analysis, and 21 items were fixed. To 300 participants differed from development step, confirmatory factor analysis was performed. 4 factors structure derived from the exploratory analysis was appropriate. And 4 factors indicated reasonable fit index such as TLI(.913), CFI (.924) and RMSEA(.077). In addition, ITSSD identified a significant positive correlation with Posttrauma Risk Checklist, Korean Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-KYZ and negative with Acceptance-action Questionnaire-2. But that was unrelated to Forgiveness Trait Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale. Also the result showed that Women experienced high level of indirect trauma of social disaster than men.
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the qualitative nature of Korean adolescents and their parent's perception of elderly parents care. In addition, this research exams the quantitative differences between the two generations in term of their elderly parents care self-efficacy and attitude towards caring for their elderly parents. Further, an examination of the parental influence upon their children's elderly parents care self-efficacy and attitude towards caring for their elderly parents. There were 2,460 participants in this study, with 820 adolescents, and 820 fathers and 820 mothers. The results of the study were as follows: First, in terms the participants perceptions of “the most difficult aspect of caring for elderly parents”, the most representative response for adolescents was financial difficulties, while for parents differences in opinions. When it came to “the best aspect of caring for elderly parents” the most representative response for adolescents was harmonious family, while for parents good for children's upbringing. When it came to “actual acts (behavior) of elderly parents care” the most representative response for adolescents was living together with their elderly parents, while for parents looking after their elderly parents. When it came to “the best method of caring for their elderly parents” the most representative response for both adolescents and parents was providing a peace-of-mind for their elderly parents, followed by the second most frequent response of adolescents living together with their elderly parents, and for parents talking with their elderly parents. When it came to “how one feels when not caring for their elderly parents” the most representative response for both groups was a feeling of indebtedness. Second, for the quantitative analyses of the differences between the two generations, the parents showed a lower level of elderly parents care self-efficacy and a higher level of negative attitude towards caring for their elderly parents, when compared to the adolescents. Third, for the parental influence upon the adolescents' elderly parents care self-efficacy and attitude towards caring for their elderly parents, the only significant influence found was the mothers' elderly parents care self-efficacy.