The purpose of the study was to identify the latent classes of meta-awareness of gender discrimination among Korean young adults using Latent Profile Analysis based on ‘perceived ambivalence toward men among women’, ‘perceived ambivalent sexism among men’, ‘perceived gender(reverse-) discrimination in Korea’. After identifying the latent classes, the difference between gender role conflict, sense of distance from the opposite sex, and support for gender discrimination issues were explored among the classified groups. As a result, 3 latent classes among women and 2 latent classes among men were identified. Latent classes among women were named ‘women with low sensitivity of sexism’, ‘women with high sensitivity of sexism’ and ‘women against sexism’ and latent classes among men were named ‘men with perception of gender equality’, ‘men with perception of reverse discrimination’. Types with higher levels of meta-awareness of gender discrimination were related with higher gender role conflict and higher sense of distance from the opposite sex. Among women, types with higher levels of meta-awareness of gender discrimination perceived higher levels of gender discrimination and showed more support for gender discrimination issues while among men, types with higher levels of meta-perception of gender discrimination only perceived higher levels of reverse discrimination. Based on the present findings, implications about the severe gender conflict among Korean young adults are further discussed in the article.
This study examined the psychological and social factors of middle-aged conglomerate executives in Korea for successful adaptation after their involuntary retirement. For this, in-depth interviews on 13 retired executives (male, average age 58.2) including changes over time and their assessment or interpretation on them were conducted, and the contents were analyzed in phenomenological methods. As a result, ‘financial preparation’ and ‘spousal support’ were predisposing factors of adaptation. The starting point of adaptation was ‘acceptance of reality’, which consisted of subfactors such as reevaluating the past life, acknowledging various changes and deviating from the past, accepting themselves as common retiree in the 50s, living with anxiety, and the need of proper time. Next, they made cognitive and emotional reevaluations and reevaluated the value of life, and reestablished ‘psychological reconstruction’ and ‘ego identity’ through new activities that they chose. Their retirement and adaptation processes after retirement are the conflicting process from their experience as a conglomerate executive that satisfied psychological and social capital and the consequent story on maladaptive coping style, as well as a narration in cognitive, emotional and behavioral perspectives to overcome such disharmony. Results of this study provides implications for corporations, nation and retirees on handling retirement.
This study attempted to verify the relationship between job burnout and organizational citizenship behavior among South Korean soldiers in the Navy force by applying the Job Demands-Resource Model and Conservation of Resource Theory, and the moderated mediating effect of social capital through the work engagement and smartphone use. The mediating effect of work engagement and the moderating effect of social capital via smartphone use were examined in the relation between job burnout and organizational citizenship behavior. We combine the mediation effect model and the moderation effect model and tested the moderated mediation effect. To perform this study, the survey was conducted on the navy soldier on duty, and total of 324 data were analyzed. The results of this study were as follows: the complete mediation effect of work engagement in the relation of job burnout and organizational citizenship behavior was verified, social capital via smartphone use moderated the relation between job burnout and work engagement, and the moderated mediation effect of social capital via smartphone use in the relation between job burnout and organizational citizenship behavior through work engagement was identified. Based on the results, implications, limitations, and future research directions of the current study were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of democratic patenting behavior of father in the relations of work-family conflict, marital satisfaction and depression of working mother who has child in 1st grade in elementary school. This study used data from 2015 Panel Study on Korean Children. The subjects are 610 working mothers and their spouses who completed the survey included the scales of work-family conflicts, democratic parenting behavior, marital satisfaction, and depression. The main results are followed. First, marital satisfaction of mother mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression. Second, the interaction of work-family conflict of mother and democratic parenting behavior of father had an effect on marital satisfaction of mother. Third, the moderated mediation effect of democratic parenting behavior of father on the association between work-life conflict, marital satisfaction and depression of mother. These findings suggested democratic parenting behavior of father as protective factor concerning in work-family conflict of working mother. These findings suggest that enhancing marital satisfaction and quality of parenting of father are important to protect depression of working mother who experienced the work-family conflict.
The purpose of this study is to confirm the effect of the young generation's Fairness perception on the hopelessness at the present time when the hopelessness of the future that young generation is experiencing is growing with social interest. This study examined the mediating effects of the perceived control and moderating effect self-esteem between the fairness perception and the hopelessness of the young generation. For this purpose, the self-reporting data of 313 young people in their 20s and 30s were collected. The results were as follows: First, fairness awareness was positively correlated with perceived control and self-esteem, and the hopelessness was negatively correlated with fairness awareness, perceive control and self-esteem. Second, perceived control mediated between fairness perception and the hopelessness, Third, self-esteem moderated the relationship between the fairness perception and the hopelessness. The high self-esteem group showed little change in hopelessness due to fairness perception while the low self-esteem group showed a big change in hopelessness due to fairness perception, which means that high self-esteem plays a role in alleviating hopelessness when fairness perception is low. The results of this study can be used as basic data to plan ways to improve mental health and quality of life.
The present study explored psychological factors related to the desire to have children of young adults who had yet to marry and begin a family. To do so, the present study investigated the relationships among the desire to have children, adult attachment styles and belief in a just world (DJ-self, PJ-self, DJ-others, and PJ-others). This study analyzed the self-reported data of 260 adults aged 20 to 39. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that after controlling for gender, individuals with more avoidant models of close adult relationships showed less desire to have children. Moreover, the belief in a just world accounted for an additional variance. Specifically, participants’ PJ-others positively predicted their desire to have children. These results suggest that individuals’ expectations about close relationships and justice of their society might explain a part of their desire to have children. The implications, limitations, and future directions of the study were discussed.
This study was conducted to validate the Korean Love addiction Questionnaire-Short Form (K-LAQ-SF) applicable to Korean society. As a result of exploratory factor analysis for Love addiction 40 Questions(Peabody, 2005), the final 5 factors and 15 questions appeared, and the model fit of the final scale was confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the equivalence test showed that the theoretical structure of the abbreviated scale works in the same way for each gender. The results of correlation analysis between K-LAQ-SF and original scale showed that the abbreviated scale represented the original scale relatively faithfully. Finally, the results of correlation analysis between this scale and relationship addiction, love type and depression showed that convergence, discrimination and criterion validity were secured. K-LAQ-SF is significant in that it can be usefully used to easily measure the characteristics of Korean adults' love addiction in a short time based on stable reliability and validity.
As the attitudes toward women is ambivalent (both hostile and ambivalent), people have a tendency to have ambivalent attitudes toward men. Despite conflicts between men and women caused by misogyny and misogyny have recently worsened in a Korean society, most of previous Korean studies have focused on the attitudes toward women. In addition, there has been no scale to measure such ambivalent attitudes toward men in Korea. Therefore, this study was designed to translate and validate the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory, a scale developed and currently utilized in the United State. Sample 1 (183 college students), sample 2 (300 college students), and sample 3 (317 adults) were used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in 16 items and 2 factors. The tests of convergent and concurrent validity revealed strong evidence for the validity of the Korean version of the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory and the reliabilities of the two factors were .830∼.917.
The purpose of this study is to identify the moderating effect of each of the three stress response (problem-centered treatment, pursuit of social support, and positive thinking) in the effect of work-family conflict between dual-earner couples on marriage satisfaction. To this end, 369 married couples (369 wives, 369 husbands) who raise children under the age of 6 were surveyed on stress coping (problem-centered, social support, and positive thinking), work-family conflicts, and marriage satisfaction. Based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), the collected data verified six research models by distinguishing the moderating effects of each of the three coping strategies from the direction of Work to Family conflict and Family to Work conflict. Interaction graphs were also presented to determine the pattern of significant buffering effects. As a result, first of all, the problem-oriented strategy of the wife buffer the negative impact of the husband's WFC on the husband's own and wife's marriage satisfaction. It was also found that problem-oriented strategy that husband himself uses to buffer the negative impact of the husband's FWC on his wife's marriage satisfaction. Second, the pursuit of social support confirmed that the negative effects of the husband's WFC on the husband's marriage satisfaction were mitigated by the pursuit of social support used by his wife. Third, in the case of positive thinking, the effect of the positive thinking on the husband's WFC on the marriage satisfaction of the husband and wife was shown, and the positive response effect of the wife's FWC conflict was also shown. Finally, based on the results of this study, the discussion and implications of the study were presented.