The purpose of this research was to examine the characteristics of typical Korean grit as opposed to Western conceptualizations. We conducted cluster analysis to identify subgroups based on three related but distinct constructs-passion(harmonious vs. obsessive) and meaning in life. Basic needs satisfaction, life satisfaction, and ego-resilience were further assessed to explore potential group-specific differences in psychological attributes. Highly gritty individuals(n=139; M=22.51 yrs) were selected by using the median. According to our results, gritty individuals were subdivided into 3 groups: the initiative who possesses highly adaptive harmonious passion and meaning in life(35.8%), the obsessive who are high in maladaptive obsessive passion(26.1%), and the passive who are the lowest in all(38.1%). The initiative grit scored the highest in all three attributes while the two other subgroups showed culturally unique patterns. Our results suggest that culture specific factors may mold differently the unfolding and psychological outcomes of grit in Korea.
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Korean adults' perception of parent-child relation on their self-efficacy, child rearing practices, elderly parent care practices, and happiness. In this study the parent-child relation is a relationship between the adults' parents and the adults. The participants in the study were adults (2,632; male=1,275, female=1,357) with children in primary, secondary, and/or university, with an average age of 45.44-years-old (male=46.96-years-old, female=44.10-years-old). The results showed a direct influence of the adults' perception of parent-child relation on their self-efficacy and their child rearing practices, and an indirect influence on their happiness. This indicates that a more positive adult's perception of parent-child relation leads to higher self-efficacy and greater devotion to their child rearing practices. And furthermore, an elevated self-efficacy enhanced their happiness. Gender differences were found for the influence of adults' perception of parent-child relation on elderly parent care practices. For Korean male adults, a more positive perception of parent-child relation lead to a more active participation in elderly parent care practices. However, for Korean female adults no direct influence was found. Based on these results, a discussion of the influence of adults' perception of parent-child relation on the adults' psychological characteristics and family-members relationships is provided.
This study aims to analyze qualitatively the people’s dysfunctional religiosity for well-being. The participants of this study were 6 the clergy and 6 believers (devotes). The clergy included three pastors of Protestant churches, two Buddhist monks (male and females), and one Won-Buddihst monk. Six devotes included two Protestants, two Catholics, and two Buddhist. There were one female in the clergy and three females in devotes. Data gathered from narrative interviews were analyzed with techniques based on Giorgi’s phenomenological strategies and procedures. Twenty two topics derived from their assertions and statements, nine main meanings were classified based on those topics. Main meaning were reward-seeking religiosity, authority oriented religiosity, selfish religiosity, blind or unconditional religiosity, asocial religiosity, inactive religiosity, inexperienced religiosity, emotionally problematic religiosity, and cognitively problematic religiosity. Based on derived topics and main meaning, suggestions for further studies, for example the scale development, and information of strategies for promoting well-being of religious persons were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of turnover, the causes of stay, and the effects of turnover of college graduates with early careers, based on the concept of job embeddedness and their stances. For this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 college graduates with early careers and the interviews were analyzed with phenomenological analytic research. The result of the study shows that the cause of turnover intention includes fit and link which are components of job embeddedness. More specifically, turnover intention of the interviewee is affected by fit which includes whether their ability and talent are used properly and whether their vision and culture fit well those of their organization, also affected by link which includes the formal or informal mutual relationship with coworkers and superiors. Stay intention, on the other hand, includes fit which contains satisfaction about work and organization, long-term career management. Stay intention also includes sacrifice which are anxiety about uncertain future and satisfaction about being employed. As an aspect of the effect of turnover, the satisfaction and fulfillment about work which are experienced after turnover by the interviewees and the satisfaction about coworkers and the team in which the interviewees are included offset the negative effect of turnover. The result also shows that organization should consider their workers’ satisfaction about the first work, their amicable relationship, and turnover cost, to improve working and living standard of colleges graduates with early careers and to prevent them from turnover.
There could be different ways of perception, emotions, and behaviors facing on unfair situation according to the culture background by which people have been affected. We investigated whether definition, feelings, and behaviors in 4 countries (Korea, China, Japan, and the US) would differ in terms of unfair situations. We further examined the relationship between new self-construal model (subjectivity- objectivity-autonomy model) and behaviors resulted from unfair situations. Three hundred seventeen participants (87 Koreans, 71 Chinese, 80 Japanese, and 79 Americans) took part in this research. We found that all countries defined unfair situation as “having a disadvantage or blame that one did not done by him or her” with the highest percentage, but there was a different percentage according to countries. Next, Chinese felt disappointment or betray from the situations highly while others expressed anger with the largest portion. In the area of behaviors, three countries in Asia answered “no behaviors” with the highest percentage while Americans mostly responded “direct expressions”. In terms of self-construal model, subjective self was high in Chinese and Koreans while autonomy was high in Chinese and American. Japanese showed objective self with the highest. Implications and future research are discussed.
In order to analyze the experience of women from the provinces settling in Seoul, the current study conducts in-depth interviews on seven women who are working in Seoul after coming up to Seoul to attend and graduate from university. The results of the interview were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, under which the open coding extracted one hundred ten concepts, twenty-one sub-categories, and eleven categories encompassing them all. Causal condition is ‘difficulty of settling in Seoul’ and contextual conditions are ‘intensification of psychological anxiety’, ‘reduction in quality of life’, and ‘continuation of economic instability’. The central phenomenon is ‘dilemma of continuing life in Seoul’ and intervening condition is ‘diagnosis of ten years after coming up to Seoul’. Action/interaction strategies are ‘changes in personal life’, ‘securing economic abilities through a stable job’, and ‘finding ways to participate in the society’, while the result was ‘choosing whether to continue living in Seoul’. The paradigm of experience of women from the provinces settling in Seoul proceed from coming up to Seoul for university to becoming independent, adapting to life in the city, experiencing growth and failures, facing challenge and searching for solutions, and conducting self-evaluation and making new choices. The participants reported that they were aware of differences and experienced anxieties as a stranger in Seoul even after living in the city for ten years; the problems they face have become more complex and diverse since when they were in university, and while they launched a career and making money, the gap between them and their peers from Seoul has not closed. The women also express desperation that they may need to leave Seoul to find alternatives to problems caused by accumulated stress and social problems that cannot be solved by an individual. In conclusion, the current study confirmed that efforts by individuals can only have limited effects in helping women from the provinces to settle in Seoul, indicating that detailed policy plans are required to solve social issues in the overall Korean society.
This study explored the psychological experiences of surviving family members of homicide victims. Nine family members of homicide victims, who could verbalize their experiences and agree to participate, were interviewed. The time between the interview and the homicide ranged from 6 months to 4 years, and all the homicide offenders were convicted prior to the study. The interview data were analyzed to identify meanings and themes using Colaizzi’s method. Results showed that 472 meaningful phrases and sentences were extracted, which were subsequently organized into 48 formulated meanings, 24 clusters of themes, 16 emergent themes, and 6 categories. The six categories were related to the homicide victim, the participant, the family members, other people/the world, the offender/the offender’s family, and realistic difficulties. For each category participants’ experiences were described in detail. Finally, implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
Abortion is prohibited in the Philippines by the law of Christianity. Korean fathers wanted abortions when Filipino mothers were pregnant with their babies(Kopino). However, Filipino mothers had to give birth to the Kopino babies. Therefore, Kopino mothers bring up their babies alone. This study tried to measure and compare what Korean and Filipino evaluate towards Kopino mothers explicitly or implicitly. In addition, this study examined how their attitudes towards Kopino mothers change when the Christianity was primed. As a result of this study, Filipino participants, both explicitly and implicitly, liked more about Kopino mothers than Korean participants. Also, Korean participants showed a little positive explicit attitude and implicit attitude towards Kopino mothers. However, Korean males answered that they liked Kopino mothers at the explicit scale, but they had a negative attitude against Kopino mothers at the implicit level. After activating the Christianity by priming, Filipino participants showed a significant increase of positive attitude towards Kopino mothers at the implicit level. On the other hand, Korean participants remained unaffected. Hence, the priming effect of Christianity varied by country. This study confirmed that Korean females didn’t have prejudice against Kopino mothers like Filipino but Korean males had prejudice against them.