Most of the researches on the view of marriage from 1970s until now have merely been the status survey to get a glimpse of thoughts on the marriage of the time. It is true that the recognitions of marriage in the recent days, especially those of the youth are going through a great deal of changes. However, it is also recognized that although westernized views on marriage recently are flooding in, still the traditional perspectives are firmly rooted underneath. Therefore, this study intended to predict the potential conflicts from diversified marital perspectives of the youth in the contemporary society applying the Korean views on marriage as an effort to develop views on marriage in scientific way, analyze the psychological problems before and after marriage, and pursue successful marriage to form a stable and desirable family. As for the method, questions were selected by 275 university students and the validity and reliability of marriage views by 1,283 married couples were examined. As a result, the following conclusions were made. The scale for Korean marriage values were summarized to six factors-‘traditional marriage’, ‘successful marriage’, ‘irrationality of marriage’, ‘necessity of marriage’, ‘cohabitation’, and ‘divorce and remarriage’, showing high correlation with the existing scales, and the reliability coefficient of each subscale indicated as comparatively reliable with the value of Cronbach α=.88 at Cronbach α=.63.
This paper explored the differences in university students' e-Sports patterns(e-Sports behaviors, its meaning and personalities) based on the types of game-lifestyle. The results of this study could be summarized as follows. First, game-lifestyle was categorized into 5 groups, that is, ‘game with someone’, ‘game alone’, ‘addicted to game’, ‘novice for game’ and ‘flow in game’. Second, there were remarkable differences in e-Sports behaviors, its meaning and personalities(altruism, sociality and aggression) among these 5 groups. Specifically, The group of ‘addicted to game’ was similar to the group of ‘flow in game’ in the amount of time/money for game. Moreover they were highly likely to regard e-Sports game defeat as the reflection of their self-esteem and as the tool of gaining popularity/superiority to peers. Even though these similarities, the group of ‘flow in game’ was inclined not to permit deviant words/deeds and to keep the good manner in the cyber space as well as the real space, while the group of ‘addicted to game’ was permissible wrong and aggressive behaviors in the both cyber space and real space. Third, the group of ‘novice for game’ was less likely to participate in e-Sports activities(playing e-Sports game and watching TV) and to be less attracted to e-Sports than other groups. Moreover they had negative perspectives on e-Sports. In specific, they regarded it as a dangerous and addictive leisure activity hindering everyday life(study, relationship with peers/family etc) and health. These results would be used to develop game/e-Sports education program
This study, driven by the question of ‘what the experience of healing of female sexual abuse victims is like,’ explores the process the victims undergo as they heal from the traumas. Using the methods suggested by Strauss and Corbin’s Grounded theory, it analyzes nine interviews taken from victims who have received counseling. The study found that the central phenomena that take place in the process of their healing is ‘mental pain due to the damage caused by sexual abuse,’ the causal conditions are ‘the recognition of the sexual abuse’ and ‘desperation,’ and the contextual conditions are ‘the reaction of the close ones of the victims,’ ‘the preconception about sexuality,’ and ‘the incarceration and punishment of the offenders.’ The victims have been intervened in the healing process by ‘being supported’ and ‘re-interpreting the meaning of the damage caused by sexual abuse,’ and are found to utilize the interactive strategy among ‘facing their emotions,’ ‘learning new coping strategies,’ and ‘hoping for the future.’ They are also found, as a result of the healing, to ‘live unafraid as survivors’ and ‘have structured their lives in a new way.’ This study is of significance in systematically elucidating the healing process and the related elements found through the voices of the survivors of sexual abuse in the context of the Korean society and culture. The limits of this study and suggestions about the studies that should follow this one are included as well.
It is the aim of present paper to examine the effects of experienced violence and observed violence in original family on adaptation in college students. In addition, the degree of contribution of two types of aggression in family were examined. Participants were 220 college students. Among them, those who have experienced violence from mother are 60.3%. And 52.3% reported violence from father. Those who have observed their parents violent behavior are 28.8%. These childhood ‘experienced violence’ and ‘observed violence’ was significantly associated early adulthood adaptation. But its effect is dependent on participant's sex. Experienced violence from mother is positively related to confidence in scholastic achievement in female. Experienced violence from father is positively related to trumatic symptoms and trait anxiety in male. On the other hand, observed violence showed significant relationship with traumatic symptoms, impulsivity, depression, self-esteem and trait anxiety. Most importantly, multiple regression analysis showed observed violence explains early adulthood adaptation more significantly than experienced violence. The discussion addressed implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.
We investigated the influences of ‘Circumstance Insensibility’, ‘Unsafe Driving’, ‘Incautious Driving’, and ‘Self-efficacy of Driving’, consisting of driving confidence level, on traffic accidents. 1055 drivers conducted Driving Confidence Level Questionnaire, items about their dangerous driving experience and traffic accidents. Among them, after checking the missing items, we analyzed data of 998 drivers. As a result, we found the relation between driving confidence levels and traffic accidents. Specially, ‘Circumstance Insensibility’ and ‘Unsafe Driving’ influenced traffic accidents. However ‘Circumstance Insensibility’ had negative effects, the other side ‘Unsafe Driving’ had positive effects on traffic accidents. This result means each factor of driving confidence levels have different relation with traffic accidents. ‘Incautious Driving’ and ‘Self-efficacy of Driving’ didn’t have any effects on traffic accidents in this research. In future, it should be investigated ‘Incautious Driving’ and ‘Self-efficacy of Driving’.
We investigated the influences of 'Circumstance Insensibility', 'Unsafe Driving', 'Incautious Driving', and 'Self-efficacy of Driving', consisting of driving confidence level, on traffic accidents. 1055 drivers conducted Driving Confidence Level Questionnaire, items about their dangerous driving experience and traffic accidents. Among them, after checking the missing items, we analyzed data of 998 drivers. As a result, we found the relation between driving confidence levels and traffic accidents. Specially, 'Circumstance Insensibility' and 'Unsafe Driving' influenced traffic accidents. However 'Circumstance Insensibility' had negative effects, the other side 'Unsafe Driving' had positive effects on traffic accidents. This result means each factor of driving confidence levels have different relation with traffic accidents. 'Incautious Driving' and 'Self-efficacy of Driving' didn't have any effects on traffic accidents in this research. In future, it should be investigated 'Incautious Driving' and 'Self-efficacy of Driving'.
This study investigated body-related values, body-esteem, and the relationship between them based on the survey data drawn from female college students in three East Asian countries(Korea, Japan, and China). 168 Korean, 108 Chinese, and 152 Japanese female college students responded to questions designed to measure four sorts of body values (operability, inclination, locus of evaluation, and social utility) and four dimensions of body esteem (appearance, weight, health, overall). The results showed that body-related values and body-esteem differ among three countries. Japanese showed the highest acceptance level for the voluntary body alteration(operability), while chinese scored the lowest. Inclination to body appearance over health was higher in Korean than in Japanese and in Chinese. Korean also evaluated the importance of body appearance and its social utility the highest, followed by Japanese and Chinese. There were dramatic differences in body esteem between Korean and Japanese. Regarding body-esteem, Korean showed the highest appearance-esteem, but the health-esteem was the lowest. On the contrary, Japanese showed the highest health-esteem, but the appearance-esteem was lowest. Chinese showed the highest weight-esteem. Four sorts of body values showed significant correlations with appearance-esteem and weight-esteem, respectively but not with health-esteem. Overall, the result supported the prediction that different political, social, and economic backdrops in three countries would be related with different body-related values and body esteem in the female college students.
Previous research in leisure motivation has been limited in terms of its overwhelming interest in beneficial outcomes of leisure activities, its short of coverage on wide range of modern leisure activities, and its lack of cultural perspectives. In order to overcome those limitations, the present research conducted a survey in which motives to participate in 48 leisure activities and frequency and importance of the activities were assessed. We categorized 7 categories of leisure activities (skill-involved, social, personal hobby, goal-oriented, relaxing, digital, and voluntary) and 7 categories of leisure motives (achievement, intimacy, psychological comfort, sensation-seeking, secondary, self-promoting, and no-fun). On the basis of the categorizations, momentary leisure motives and individual differences of the leisure motives were conceptualized and tested as a preceding factor of selection of leisure activities. This conceptualization was discussed in its practical implication of leisure education, consulting, and policy.