The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of techno-overload and techno-invasion on work-family conflict and the mediating role of psychological detachment from work to techno-overload and techno-invasion. In addition, this study examined the moderating role of leader-member exchange in the relationship between techno-overload, techno-invasion and psychological detachment from work. The results from 306 participants provided evidence that (1) techono-invasion was negatively related to psychological detachment from work, (2) psychological detachment from work was negatively related to work-family conflict, (3) psychological detachment from work partially mediated the relationship between techno-invasion and work-family conflict (4) leader-member exchange moderated the relationship between techno-invasion and psychological detachment from work. Based on the results, implications of these findings, limitations, and future research were dicussed in general discussion.
Loving-kindness & compassion meditation (LCM) is one of the popular intervention on clinical setting to cultivate loving-kindness & compassion for self and other. Shame is known for unconscious and implicit emotion including negative self-concept. Some researchers suggest that people with high shame have difficulty in cultivating loving-kindness & compassion toward oneself because of shame including the negative self-critic. In this research, it is explored the influence of shame for the object of LCM. There are 2 experiments to find out the answer to this question. In experiment 1, participants (N = 108) are randomly assigned to two conditions. The one condition is loving-kindness meditation for self, and the other is loving-kindness meditation for positive others. Dislike and engagement from participants about loving-kindness meditation instruction are measured after meditation for 8 minutes. From the experiment 2, loving-kindness meditation is replaced with compassion meditation from the design of experiment 1. This experiment is conducted because of psychological differences between loving-kindness and compassion. Participants (N = 116) are randomly assigned to two conditions, compassion meditation for self and positive others, respectively. The results of experiment 1 show that dislike of loving-kindness meditation for self seems to high when people have high shame, but shame does not have an influence on engagement. For loving-kindness meditation for positive others, shame seems to not affect on dislike and engagement about loving-kindness meditation instruction. The results of experiment 2 show that dislike is higher for self than for positive others about compassion meditation for people with high shame, but shame does not affect on engagement. For discussion, it is suggested that shame has special features of emotion. For the future, we discuss the therapeutic strategy for people with negative self-concept.
The current study is the first attempt to review the [Korean Journal of Psychology: Culture and Social Issues] systematically. For the past 22 years from 1994 to 2015, 464 articles have been published in the Journal. We analyzed the 337 empirical research articles, with respect to their objectives, predictor and outcome variables, and their methodologies. Most of the studies dealt with variables at individual level; some dealt with variables of the community and socio-cutural environment level. Many of the studies included general population, not necessarily social minorities. The results were compared with the literature on the social issues that Koreans perceive as social issues. Also it is noteworthy that many studies failed to specify such demographic characteristics as age, gender, and locality of their participants in the articles. Based on the analysis results, we discussed the roles of psychology and of the Journal in the contemporary Korean context.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological characteristics of affecting never married men and women through analyzing the content of in-depth interviews about the idea of marriage and the reason for never married choice. For achieving this purpose, the in-depth interview was conducted with 9 men and women aged mid-20s to late 30s who said to choose never married life for a long time, and then the content of interview was analyzed using consensual qualitative research. As a result of analyzing the content of in-depth interview, it was derived into 2 areas, 10 sub-areas, and 25 categories. The results of the study were as follows. Firstly, it was found that research participants negatively recognized the marriage and had unrealistic expectation rather than no expectation for marriage. Secondly, most of the research participants felt negative feelings about their parents' patriarchal role, and they did not want to live like their parents. They also reported that they did not see their marriage separated from their parents. Thirdly, most of the research participants felt difficulty in forming relationships with intimate person, and it became more difficult to have expectations about spouses and marriage due to repeated relationship conflict patterns. Fourthly, the research participants showed psychological aspect of experiential avoidance and seeking for individuality in terms of never married choice. Most of the research participants predicted the failure of married life, and reported that they were trying to prevent uncomfortable feelings and sufferings by choosing never married life. Also they reported that individuality considered more important than connection with others(togetherness) and individual value considered more important than collective value. Participants in this study showed negative evaluation or had negative influences on the marriage life of parents and acquaintances. This is more likely to be a passive factor in never married choice, so future research should examine the characteristics of active factors in never married choice.
Most research on medical accidents is related to medical disputes and malpractice of relief system. Therefore, there is a lack of research which explores the psychological experiences of patients injured by medical accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) of patients harmed by medical accidents and to examine the moderating role of social support on the relationship between clinicians' explanation and attitude and PTSD symptoms. A total of 180 patients were drawn from a medical accident organization and online communities related to medical accidents. Results showed that 171 (95%) of the subjects experienced full PTSD symptoms and their severity of the PTSD Symptoms was as high as those who experienced other severe traumatic events. Though the main effect of clinician’s explanation and attitude on PTSD symptoms was not significant, the moderating effect of social support was significant in the relationship between clinicians’ explanation and attitude and PTSD symptoms. In other words, when the level of social support was low, the poorer the explanation and attitude of clinicians, the more severe the symptoms of PTSD. Drawing from these results, psychological, social, and institutional strategies were suggested to alleviate and prevent PTSD symptoms of patients injured by medical accidents. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
This study investigated the nature and dimensionality of the motives why employees showed the silence even though they could speak up their opinions. It aimed to develop the scales measuring employee silence. Thus, three studies were designed and particularly, two studies featured two different studies, totaling five studies. Study 1 conducted open-ended survey asking and 104 workers from a variety of work field answered. With the results of open-ended questions, a were developed, consisting of 60-items to measure employee silence motivation. Study 2 examined the scale developed and 481 workers from diverse work fields participated in. The exploratory factor and ‘intra-ESEM’ analyses were confirmed the construct of silence motivation, composing 5 factors(acquiescent, defensive, disengaged, opportunistic, relational silence) the 20-items was developed to measure the construct(Study 2-1). Furthermore, ‘inter-ESEM’ analysis was examined the discriminant validity of scale developed by the current study with general silence behavior and voice behavior. It found that the employee silence was distinguished from general silence behavior and voice behavior(Study 2-2). Study 3 was designed for validation of silence motivation scale which developed from Study 1 and Study 2. Based on these results, the implications and limitations of this study as well as the direction for future study were discussed.
Despite the benefits of social activity on happiness, humans still spend over one third of their time by themselves―sleeping. The effect of sleep quality on happiness as well as its underlying mechanism are examined in this study. Based on previous findings on the role of sleep in consolidation of memories, it was hypothesized that a good sleep would promote happiness by increasing the likelihood of recalling everyday episodes in a positively biased manner. In Study 1, regardless of one’s demographic variables, social variables, and economic status, sleep quality was positively related to life satisfaction. To examine the causal direction of this effect, participants were asked to complete a survey twice with different time intervals. Controlling for baseline variables, sleep quality during previous two weeks (Study 2) or previous day (Study 3) significantly predicted the participants’ life satisfaction. Moreover, this relationship was partially mediated by a positive memory bias (Study 3). This study opens interesting questions on a relatively unexamined nonsocial predictor of happiness, sleep quality.
The main purpose of this research is to analyze stress, social support and coping behavior of adults based on their level of self-efficacy. A total of 899 adults (399 male; 500 female), each with a child attending either elementary and secondary school, participated in the study. The inter-rater reliability for the open-ended questionnaire utilized in the study was 93.4%, with a Kappa coefficient of .92. The range of Cronbach α for the variables measured through a quantitative method was .87∼.92. The results were as follows: First, the representative responses to the question about their most painful stress experiences were, financial difficulties, child rearing and duties of workplace. The Lower Efficacy group, compared to the Upper Efficacy group, responded much more with financial difficulties related responses. There were significant differences in the level of stress symptoms according to level of self-efficacy. The Lower Efficacy group expressed stronger levels of stress symptoms when compared to the Upper Efficacy group. Second, in terms of social support, the participants responded that they received the most help from their family members, followed by none(self), and friends. When comparing the two efficacy groups, the Upper Efficacy group responded most frequently that they received social support from their family members, whereas the Lower Efficacy group indicated none. There were significant differences in the level of relational conflicts according to the level of self-efficacy. The Upper Efficacy group showed much less conflict in parent-child relations, spousal relations and relations with their boss, compared to the Lower Efficacy group. Third, for the type of social support participants received, the most frequent response was emotional support, followed by none, and advice. Relatively, when comparing the two groups with each other, the Lower Efficacy group responded more frequently with none, whereas for the Upper Efficacy group responded more frequently with advice. There were significant differences in the amount of emotional support received according to level of self-efficacy. The Upper Efficacy group received much more emotional support from their spouses and their bosses compared to the Lower Efficacy group. Fourth, the most frequently adopted coping style to stress was self-regulation, followed by direct problem solving, and nothing(none). The most frequent response for the Upper Efficacy group was direct problem solving, whereas for the Lower Efficacy group was nothing(none). There was a significant difference in coping efficiency to stress according to level of self-efficacy. The Upper Efficacy group coped more efficiently with stress than the Lower Efficacy group.