There has been few research attempting to measure social support quantitatively in an army. Developing a reliable scale measuring social support will be very useful for future research as well as prevent accidents in an army. In the present study, after verbal protocol analysis, a questionnaire(24 items) for measuring social support's contents and social network was developed based on preceding studies. Responses from 285 soldiers were factor-analyzed using principal-axis(PAF) extraction procedure, followed by oblique rotation. Three factors with eigenvalues of great than 1 were finally extracted. Analysis of the item content of the factors indicated dimensions information support, emotional support, and instrumental support respectively. On the basis of factor loadings and item-total correlations, six items on each of the intended dimensions were retained(total 18 items). Cronbach alpha coefficients of each subscale ranged from .82 to .88, which showed satisfactory internal consistency. On the other hand, after verbal protocol analysis, social network of soldiers was twelve persons. The present study could work as a stepping stone for guiding the direction of further research.
Present research is an attempt to theorize driving aptitude on which have not been studied much. Even though the original purpose of driving test battery was to screen examinees only based on ability indices, this study aimed to add functions to provide diagnostic indices on driving related aptitude as well as personality characteristics. Therefore, this study consists of two parts. The first part looked into driving aptitude composed of ability components based on the present commercial driving test battery. The second part explored personality characteristics necessary for safe driving. The criterion measures included in these sections of this study were accident records in study 1 and data on driving behavior in study 2. A canonical correlation between driving aptitudes and criterion measures, a discriminant analysis to distinguish accident oriented drivers, and hierarchical multiple regression showed the relatively more effectiveness of personality characteristics to predict drivers' future driving behavior compared to ability components as well as demographic variables. Among ability components, speed calculation test, perceptual speed test, motor ability test were found to be useful to predict future accidents. Furthermore, psychoticism, impulsivity, and anger scales were found effective to explain driving behaviors. However, this research had several limitations. The first one was an excessively small explanatory power in study 1 in spite of a huge sample size. The second one was the primary findings of study 2 came from self-reported data.
School violence has become a serious social issue in Korea, and this article was attempted to formulate a comprehensive and systematic conceptual framework for understanding and intervening school violence. For the purpose, school violence was defined, and existing theoretical approaches to school violence were organized into two major approaches (i.e., individual traits approach and socio-environmental approach), and research findings of each approach were reviewed and examined. Because of several problems and limitations inherent in each approach, the author proposed a new model of school violence, an integrated model, for the comprehensive and systematic conceptualization. The characteristics and implications of the proposed model for future research and intervention were discussed.
he paper analyzes the concepts of authority, authoritarianism, and chemyon("face") in Korean culture using the indigenous psychologies approach developed by Kim and Berry(1993). The present authors explore the relationship between the concept of "face" and authority conceptually and empirically. The concepts of chemyon and authority in Korea must be understood in the cultural and historical context, taking into consideration institutional, traditional, and moral dimensions. Empirical studies with students and adults reveal that the concepts of chemyon and authority are closely inter-related. Maintenance of chemyon is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the maintenance of authority. In other words, loss of chemyon implies the loss of authority and authority is preserved when one's chemyon is maintained. However, maintenance of chemyon does not imply existence of authority.
This study examines the stress experience of salaried employees and the unemployed during the economic crisis in Korea (i.e., in which Korea received economic assistance from the International Monetary Fund). By using a questionnaire developed by the present researchers in 1997, participants were asked to write, in an open-ended response format, what they consider to be the most stressful, their cognitive and emotional reactions, from whom they received social support, the type of social support received, the type of coping strategy used, and the effectiveness of their coping strategy. The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 553 participants; salaried employees working in a small to mid-size firm (n=269), salaried employees working in a large firm (n=98), and those who were unemployed (n=186). The salaried employees are most like to report financial difficulties and the unemployed the future uncertainty as being the most stressful. In terms of coping style, the unemployed are most likely to use active coping strategies, while the salaried employees are most likely to use self-regulation. The unemployed are most likely receive social support from both family members and friends, while the salaried employees are most likely to receive social support from friends. Similar to previous studies, although the nature of stressful event has changed the type of coping strategies used and the nature of social support received remains constants across different samples.
This paper reviews the history, the research approach and research methods of traffic psychology, and presents the basic features of visual perception, risk compensation theory and risk homeostasis theory to explain the traffic behaviors and the driver's attitude change on various road environments. Emperical examples demonstrating the relationship between the driving experience and age, the driving and driver's fatigue and commuting stress are pointed out, and demonstrating the road lighting, the psychological right of way, the communication on the road, the driver's attitude on the traffic law are pointed out in other to understand the traffic behaviors. This paper attempts to identify that the important factor in accident causation is the behavior of traffic participant and identify the traffic psychology can contribute to develop the effective accident countermeasures.
In order to investigate ingroup favoritism when an ingroup member is a candidate for a representative, data of metropolitan university students, local university students, and elders were analyzed. Ingroup favoritism in voting(IFV) for kinship, region, and elementary and middle school alumni was strong in elders and local university students, which was interpreted as a collectivistic tendency. IFV for high school alumni was strong in metropolitan students. Protestants' and Catholics' IFV was stronger than that of Buddhists. Results of regression analyses showed that IFV for kinship and region should be motivated by self-esteem through identification; IFV for alumni by the need for social support. Self-sacrificing for ingroup members was likely to be motivated by need for social support; General ingroup favoritism in other situations than voting seemed to be motivated by need for self-esteem through identification. Theoretical relationships of these results to Batson's empathic helping, to social identity theory, and to collectivism were discussed.
This study examines generational differences and similarities between adolescents and adults. A total of 2,548 participants (982 adolescents and 1,566 adults) completed a survey developed by the present researchers, in addition to the self-efficacy subscales developed by Bandura(1997). The results indicated significant differences between adolescents and students in terms of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behavior. Adolescents reported generational gap with adults in social life, while adults perceived generational gap pertaining to academic achievement. In terms of values and behavior, adolescents were much more liberal, while adults were much more conservative. More specifically, adolescents valued self-development, wealth, and fame, while adults valued altruistic goals. In terms of desired occupation, adolescents preferred the entertainment business, while adults preferred professional careers. Adults scored higher on self-efficacy subscales, and both adolescents and adults perceived adults to be more self-efficacious. When dealing with intergenerational conflict, adolescents are more likely to avoid the problem, while adults attempt to actively solve the problem. In terms of musical preference, adolescents preferred Rap and Hip-Hop music, while adults preferred nostalgic Korean music. Adolescents were more likely to use computer and handphones. In addition to these generational differences, several were several similarities. Both samples valued family harmony, progressive ideals, role differentiation, and self-regulatory coping strategies. Finally, implication of these results are discussed.