This study investigated the relationship between older driver’s safe driving behavior, driving mobility(amount of driving, assessment for driving-related physical ability, confidence for adaptation in driving situation, amount of social activity) and subjective well-being(life satisfaction, positive/negative affect). The data of these variables were collected by questionnaire method based on face-to-face interview. The results can be summarized as followings. First, the older driver who reported higher scores in the self-report safe driving behavior questionnaire tended to show higher level of subjective well-being and driving-based mobility. Second, all the sub-factors in the driving-based mobility questionnaire were positively related to life satisfaction, positive affect but negatively related to negative affect except amount of driving. Finally, it was found that both confidence for adaptation in driving situation and amount of social activity positively mediated the relationship between self-report safe driving behavior and life satisfaction and positive affect, but confidence for adaptation in driving situation negatively mediated the relationship between self-report safe driving behavior and negative affect, Implication and suggestion were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of parental overprotection on Korean college students’ moral behaviors. To test the prediction that overprotected participants will show more immoral behaviors in moral dilemma situations, we measured perceived parental overprotectiveness and morality. Participants were 113 college freshmen. Two types of modified experimental paradigms were used to assess participants on their levels of justice-oriented and prosocial morality. Based on whether they displayed moral behavior (i.e., honest or helping behavior) or not, participants were included in either moral or immoral group. Second, the levels of perceived maternal overprotectiveness and paternal overprotectiveness were assessed using Korean-Parental Overprotection Scale (K-POS) and were compared between moral and immoral group. For justice-oriented morality, the results showed that the immoral group reported a significantly higher level of perceived maternal overprotection compared to the moral group (t = 2.16, p < .05). On the contrast, paternal overprotection was not related to participants’ honesty. The results indicate that participants who experienced overprotective parental care are more likely to act immorally in moral dilemma situations dealing with justice. Meanwhile, for prosocial morality, both maternal and paternal overprotection levels did not result in significant difference between two groups. More Implications and limitations were discussed.
Current study examine whether happiness (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) improves academic achievement (GPA) by longitudinal data. Two surveys were conducted with one year interval and total 112 respondents participated in both surveys. Hierarchical regression analysis was employed to investigate that happiness in the first time have an effect on GPA in the second time after controlling for GPA in the first time as well as demographic variables. We found that life satisfaction and positive affect in the first survey improved GPA after the next semester. Interestingly, GPA did not bring happiness by this longitudinal data. The implication for study were discussed.
The present study was conducted to investigate how emotional expression change, test delay, and background influence on face recognition. In experiment 1, participants were presented with negative faces at study phase and administered for standard old-new recognition test including targets of negative and neutral expression for the same faces. In experiment 2, participants were studied negative faces and tested by old-new face recognition test with targets of negative and positive faces. In experiment 3, participants were presented with neutral faces at study phase and had to identify the same faces with no regard for negative and neutral expression at face recognition test. In all three experiments, participants were assigned into either immediate test or delay test, and target faces were presented in both white and black background. Results of experiments 1 and 2 indicated higher rates for negative faces than neutral or positive faces. Facial expression consistency enhanced face recognition memory. In experiment 3, the superiority of facial expression consistency were demonstrated by higher rates for neutral faces at recognition test. If facial expressions were consistent across encoding and retrieval, memory performance on face recognition were enhanced in all three experiments. And the effect of facial expression change have different effects on background conditions. The findings suggest that facial expression change make face identification hard, and time and background also affect on face recognition.
The present study aimed at investigating how those students who retook college entrance examination(or RCEE) appreciate the experience. For this purpose, three persons from each cell at the 2(satisfaction with college life: high vs. low) by 2 (evaluation of RCEE: positive vs. negative) combination among those who participated in Lee and Jung study (2014) were selected and were interviewed. Qualitative data analysis based on phenomenological approach produced seven categories and 19 subcategories, which were grouped on the temporal dimension. First, when they were at the midst of this RCEE experience, the college students saw this as adversity that should be overcome while they underwent a limit of pain they could bear. Second, the college students evaluated this experience as upgrading my life with wound left unseen. Finally, they assigned to both of the positive and negative aspects of RCEE experience the meaning that the experience made them accept themselves as they were. Given these results, implications, limitations of this study were discussed.
This driving simulation study examined the effect of driver's state driving anger(SDA) on collision avoidance(CA) and situation awareness(SA), as well as the moderating effect of driver's positive and negative affect(PA and NA) on the relationship between the driver's SDA and SA. The results showed the followings. First, high SDA group collided with the leading vehicle more frequently than low SDA group. Second, neither the driver's trait driving anger(TDA) nor PA/NA yielded significant changes in SA after SDA was induced. Third, high SDA tended to lower SA but this tendency was observed only when the driver's NA was high. These results suggested that SDA than TDA is a significant deteriorating factor of the driver's SA, and more importantly, SDA should be considered with other affect-relating variable such as NA in explaining the effect of SDA on driver's SA and CA.
The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural characteristics of Korean interpersonal relationships. A total of 45 preliminary items were selected through book and literature review about the characteristics of the Korean or Korean society in study 1. The first survey data were collected from the Korean university students. Through the item analysis and Exploratory Factor Analysis(EFA), 4 factors composed of 32 items were extracted. Four factors were found: ‘friendly attitude, harmony, jeong(interpersonal affection), keeping relationship’, and using content analysis, 20 items were refined. Study 2 was conducted with the data collected from the Korea adults. As the result of carrying out EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA), the final 17 items were fixed as an affective relationships scale of the Korean. And CFA were implemented to evaluate discriminative validity. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to analysis the causal model between self-directedness, learning flow, career decision and self-efficacy, and career exploration behavior of undergraduate students. A survey was conducted on 604 undergraduate students, and Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze. The major findings were as follows: First, learning flow and career decision self-efficacy were found to have positive impacts on career exploration behavior. However, self-directedness was found to have no significant direct impacts on career exploration behavior. Second, self-directedness was found to have positive impacts on learning flow and career decision self-efficacy. Finally, learning flow and career decision self-efficacy were found to have perfect mediating effects on the relationships between self-directedness and career exploration behavior. Considering the size of the specific indirect effect, the mediating effects of learning flow was relatively larger than those of career decision self-efficacy. Based on the results, discussions to increase career exploration behavior were made as well as suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this research is to examine the factors influencing on worker’s job-satisfaction analyzing the influence of emotional support from fellow workers, resiliency of self-efficacy, stress and job- performance. A total of 456 completed questionnaire, consisted of small business workers 253 (male 89, female 164) and middle school teachers 203 (male 44, female 159). The questionnaire showed relatively high reliability, with Cronbach α ranging from .83 to .91. The results of the path analysis and effect analysis showed very similar pattern in the group of small business workers and middle school teachers. Based on the path analysis, emotional support from fellow workers had a positive influence on the workers resiliency of self-efficacy. Consequently, the enhanced resiliency of self-efficacy increased the job-performance, however decreased the stress, which in turn contributed to increase the job-satisfaction significantly. Based on the effect analysis, resiliency of self-efficacy showed the most big size of positive total effect to worker’s job-satisfaction, followed by job-performance and emotional support. On the other hand, stress showed negative effect on job-satisfaction.