The purpose of this study was to analyze responses as bystanders of middle school girls in a simulated cyberbullying situation. This study also aimed to examine effects of bullying, victimization, anger-out, and state-anger on responses from girls as bystanders. The participants were composed of 2nd or 3rd grade middle school girls(N=59). Responses were classified into 7 categories(using explicit language, attacking, pass, changing topic, comforting victims, others, and conformity). Of these, attackings were classified according to the target(bully, victim, both, and ambiguous object). It was again classified as 'attacking response' and 'helping response' and was scored and summed according to the strength of the response and used as a dependent variable. Collected data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study are as follows: First, the most frequent response was 'the others'(41.69%) followed by 'using explicit language'(20.34%), 'passing'(13.56%), 'attacking bully'(8.81%), 'conformity'(8.64%), 'changing topic'(6.61%), and 'comforting victim'(0.34%). Second, responses of attacking victim were positively influenced by the previous bullying experiences and acting anger-out, and were negatively influenced by the previous victimization experience. State-anger has a positively influenced on responses of the attacking bully and the helping victim. None of the variables were significant influenced on responses of the attacking both and ambiguous object. These results will be useful data to help middle school girls as bystanders properly intervene in cyberbullying situation. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research.
Intentionality judgement in criminal cases is a core area of fact finding that is root of guilty and sentencing judgment on the defendant. However, the third party is not sure the intentionality because it reflects subjective aspect of agent. Thus, mechanism behind intentionality judgment is an important factor to be properly understood by the academia and the criminal justice system. However, previous studies regarding intentionality judgment models have shown inconsistent results. Mental-state models proposed foreseeability(belief) and desire of agent at the time of the offence as key factors in intentionality judgment. These factors consistent with central things on intentionality judgment in criminal law. However, key factors in moral-evaluation models are blameworthiness of agent and badness of outcome reflected on the consequent aspect of act. Recently, deep-self concordance model emerged suggesting important factors on intentionality judgment are not mental states and moral evaluations but individual’s deep-self. However, these models are limited in that they do not consider the important features of criminal cases, that the consequence of the case is inevitably negative, and therefore the actor who is a party to legal punishment rarely expresses his or her mental state at the time of the act. Therefore, this study suggests that, based on the existing intentionality judgment studies and the characteristics of the criminal case, the inference about who the agent was originally will play a key role in judging the intentionality in the criminal case. This is the moral-character model. Futhermore, In this regard, this study discussed what the media and criminal justice institutions should keep in mind and the directions for future research.