This study analyzed the relationship between Korean family-clan living patterns and subjective well-being, based on a nationwide survey of 1000 samples. Results showed that recent Korean families were mostly composed of two generations(parents and children) and that males' parents were more frequently visited than females' parents. Males were more satisfied with their family lives than females, and family life was more highly correlated with general life satisfaction than clan life. Younger generations showed a negative correlation between optimism and the number of family members living together, but older generations showed a positive correlation between family or life satisfaction and the number of family members living together. People in small villages tended to meet their parents and siblings more frequently than those in large cities, and showed higher life satisfaction. Great national holidays were more respected by people living in small regions than by those living in large cities, and marriage ceremonies were relatively more valued by people in large cities. Highly educated individuals were more likely to be satisfied with their family lives but less with their clan lives, which implies that educated people tended to rely heavily on close family members rather than on remote relatives for their happiness. Those who live together with their spouses after marriage showed the highest satisfaction with their family and relatives and their general lives, and those who have not gotten married showed the medium levels of satisfaction. Those who have exerienced temporary or relatively permanent separation showed the lowest satisfaction and optimism. Generally, males expressed higher satisfaction with their relatives than females, and house-wives without jobs were more satisfied with their relatives than employed women.
This study analyzed the community life from the perspectives of subjective well-being. The respondents were 1,000 males and females of age of over 20, sampled from the whole population in Korea. The people who live in their own house and in the rural ares('yup' and 'myun'), and have longer expected length of community residency like to attend the community meeting frequently as well as have higher sense of community. The major factors of deciding community residency were the convenience of their houses and the transportation of their community, and the degree of the environmental polution. The satisfaction with community and the sense of community were correlated with the satisfaction with life. The boundary of neighbor was considered smaller than that of 'dong', 'yup', and 'myun'. The half of respondents lived in their own hometown, the rest half who live in the strange land also kept connection with their hometown in several ways. The respondents evaluated the effect of the local self-governing system slightly positive and expected very positively the effect of this system in the future. Finally, the implications of these findings were discussed.
This study examined the basic features of Koreans' group activities by conducting a nationwide survey. More specifically, it examined the number of groups in which people participate, the participation frequency, satisfaction with the groups and the intimacy among group members that people perceive regarding the social gatherings, groups for cultivating hubbies, social service groups and religious groups. Another purpose of the present survey was to examine the relationship between the quantity and the quality of group activities of people and the subjective well-being. 1,000 people of both sex were sampled and responded to the interviewer. The results showed that 82.8% of the respondents participated in more that one group. The groups in which Koreans participate the most were the social gatherings or the friendly societies, of which 75.6% of the respondents reported that they were the members. Among these social gatherings or friendly societies, the most common was the alumni association. The second most common social groups in which people participate were the religious group, the next were the groups for hubbies and the least popular one was the social sevice group. Only 6.7% of the respondents were the members of the social service groups. In general, people were satisfied with their group and reported that members of their groups were intimate. However, the participation rate, satisfaction with groups and the intimacy among group members in the social service groups were reported as the lowest. These group activities were affected by gender, age, education and the income level. It was also found that as people were more satisfied with their family and relatives, they not only participated in more groups but they also felt greater satisfaction with their groups and group activities. Finally and as expected, in general there was a positive relationship between the number of the groups in which people participated and the subjective well-being. Moreover, the satisfactory groups activities and the intimacy among group members in social gatherings and the religious groups were positively correlated with the subjective well-being. The theoretical and the practical implications of these findings were discussed.
The purpose of the study was to construct a subjective well-being scale that can measure subjective satisfaction of social(or group) activity. The 323 subjects completed measures including) 1)Satisfaction with Life Scale(SWLS), 2)General Test of Life Quality(GTLQ), 3) Mood Evaluation Scale(MES), 4) Introvert- Extrovert Scale(IES), 5)Life orientation Scale(LOT), 6)Subjective Individualism and Collectivism(SINDCOL), 7)Sense of Community Scale(SCS), and 8)items about 26 life situations which were categirized into four domains(i.e., personal, family, social, environmental). Inter-correlations and multiple regression analysis were performed to identify the relationships among 8 measures. Results showed that SWLS was most reliable and significantly related with other measures. The sub-scale of the MES(e.g., positive mood and negative mood) was also reliable and could be as a substitue measure of SWLS. The LOT was a significant predictor of the SWLS, GTLQ, and MES. In addition, personal domain of life satisfaction was highly correlated with subjective well-being. However, the IES, SINDCOL, and SCS were not significantly correlated with the subjective well-being. Several criteria in constructing a subjective well-being scale were discussed.
This study compared the importance, satisfaction with and the functions of the Korean's family life and kinship, community life and the various group activities(i.e., social gatherings, groups for hobbies, social service groups and the religious groups). This study also examined the relationships between the satisfaction with these groups and communal life and the subjective well-being. The respondents were 1,000 males and females of age of over 20, sampled from the whole population. The results demonstrated that people showed approximately the same level of satisfaction with family life as that with group activities. It was also found that people considered the kinship as the most important group among these, social gatherings the next, neighbors, alumni and the religious groups, listed by downward order of importance rating scores. The results also demonstrated that the relatives were considered as the ones who could provide the practical and material help when needed, implying that their main function was instrumental. On the other hand, friends were considered as important and helpful as travel partners of when people felt depressed, which showed that the function of friends was mainly that of emotional nature. Satisfaction with family and relatives were the most correlated with the satisfaction with life, and satisfaction with the community, collective self-esteem, and satisfaction with religious groups were also related with the satisfaction with life, in their downward order. The implications of these findings were discussed.
This research determined the effects of residential type on quality of life. The relevent data was selected from the worker's quality of life research sample(1994). 2,308 workers were investigated. According to the research analysis, home owners and owners of large houses were most satisfied with their residence. In order to assess the affects of residential type on the subjective quality of life, the influence on residential satisfaction variable was considered. Thus, path analysis was performed. The ownership and the size of residence influenced the residential satisfaction variable, which affects the quality of life. However, the residential type dose not influence the subjective quality of life or the degree of residence satisfaction.
The primary purpose of this study is to investigate variables influencing on the acquiescence to corruption, and to figure out the inter-relationships among these variables. A mean difference test shows that the acquiescence level of government employees is significantly lower than that of other people. A regression analysis indicates that there exists a unique relationship between personal value system and the level of acquiescence to corruption according to whether responders are employed by government or not. Generally the acquiescence level of government employees in influenced more by their group-oriented attitude rather than by ethical value system. A covariance structural analysis also confirms this trend of the relationship among variables
In this study, an attempt is made to examine one's subjective social distance toward members of diverse stigmatized social groups. The social distance scale consisted of interpersonal physical distance and interpersonal social distance. 352 male and female students were selected from four universities. The results indicated that drug addicts, prostitutes, ex-convicts, mentally ill and retarded persons, people included in this study as stigmatized individuals were least acceptable. To test the differences of social distance among stigmatized groups based on stigmatizing conditions, analysis of variance was used. The result showed that stigmatized individuals with invisible and controllable stigma were least acceptable. The relationship between subjects` locus of control, the degree of psychosocial development and social distance toward stigmatized groups was investigated in this study. As a result, externals showed more favorable attitudes toward stigmatized groups than internals. Also subjects with high scores in the negative scales and resolution scales that measured psychosocial personality development showed more favorable attitudes toward stigmatized groups than subjects with low scores.
The present study was to identify specific characteristics of motor vehicle drivers that are associated with traffic accident. When driver's age and the length of driving experience were controlled for through analysis of covariance, the group differences remained on such factors as Carefulness, Regulation Observance, Responsibility, and the total score of SDAT. When different age groups among the bus drivers were compared to one another, the drivers in 50's showed higher scores than those in 30's and 40's on the factors of Carefulness and Driving Attitude. When different age groups among the accident repeaters were compared to one another, the drivers in 50's showed higher scores than those in 30's and 40's on all of the factors. Regulation offenders did not differ from unwitting victims on the scale scores of MMPI. However, the number of offense was a function of Schizophrenia score among the offenders. The drivers with less driving experience showed higher scores than did the drivers with more driving experience on Masculinity-Femininity, Paranoia, Schizophrenia, and Hypomania scales of MMPI.