This research aims to examine the differences in the christians' self-conscious feelings - shame and guilt-feeling etc. - according to their religious propensity. For this 711 christians were participated. First, we explored the relationship among demographic variables, religious propensity and self-conscious feelings, and then tested the differences in the self-conscious feelings according to 4 religious propensity - pro-religious, intrinsic-religious, extrinsic-religious and non-religious - groups. The result showed that intrinsic religious group is significantly higher in the guilt-feeling than extrinsic religious group, but there were no difference in shame. In conclusion, christian's intrinsic-religious, propensity seemed to relate to mature religious attitudes, but christian's extrinsic-religious propensity to immature attitudes. Finally the implications and limitations of the study, as well as suggestions for the further study were discussed.
We focused on the missing confirmation domain of the hasteful behavior. We tried to identify the variety of hasteful behavior and the effects of missing confirmation behavior domain of the hasteful behavior on driving behaviors. 388 drivers responded to Hasteful Behavior Questionnaire, Driver Behavior Questionnaire(DBQ), and Driving Experience Questions. Data which have missing values among them were removed, 374 data were analyzed. As a result of factor analysis, hasteful behavior consist of time pressure, uncomfortableness, isolation, boring condition, and expecting rewards, and the DBQ consist of violation, error, and lapse. The components of hasteful behavior was divided into the missing confirmation behavior and the need for achievement domain by the second factor analysis and difference verification of coefficient of correlation. The missing confirmation behavior domain of hasteful behavior had significant influence on error and lapse. The isolation of the missing confirmation behavior domain had a negative effect, and the uncomfortableness of the missing confirmation domain had a positive effect on violation. The time pressure had a negative effect, and the isolation and the uncomfortableness had a positive effect on error and lapse.
Coping and defense are similar psychological mechanisms to reduce stress response, but they are regarded as distinct from each other. Defense involved distortions of reality, but coping was used for strategies associated with accepting the true nature of the situation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coping and defense features of the North Korean Defectors in the Rorschach test. The subjects were then categorized into four groups based on their birth place and gender: Male North Korean defectors(N=16), female North Korean defectors(N=28), male South Koreans(N=17), and female South Koreans(N=25). All subjects were individually administered the Rorschach test, and protocols were scored according to the Exner(2003)'s Rorschach Comprehensive systems. Coping or defense-related Rorschach variables were selected for analysis: EA, CDI, Adj D, EB style, Lamda, Zd, X-%, Xu%, W:Dd:D, P, reaction time, and other behavior characteristics during the testing. Compared with other groups, female North Korean defectors were more likely to show poor coping resources(low EA), adjustment difficulties(Adj D), and distortions of reality(high X-%). They also demonstrated more 'don't know' responses and more delayed responses than other groups. These findings suggest that poor coping resources make female North Korean defectors more vulnerable to stress, and psychological intervention such as social skills training may help them settle successfully in south Korea. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research were discussed.
Korean clients show a tendency to hide the real causes of problem. Therefore the ‘grasping the real cause of a problem’ is regarded as the first characteristic in Reality Dynamic Counseling. Many counselors stress over how express empathy with a client rather than understanding a problem. However the attitude change wouldn't be attained without grasping the real cause of a problem. The researcher tries to demonstrate how this characteristic is at play in counseling process. The researcher illustrates this process by ‘narrative method’ as one of qualitative research methods. The client who had received counseling for stress disorder and insomnia took a turn for the better as soon as getting at the truth of his problem.
Korean clients show a tendency to hide the real causes of problem. Therefore the 'grasping the real cause of a problem' is regarded as the first characteristic in Reality Dynamic Counseling. Many counselors stress over how express empathy with a client rather than understanding a problem. However the attitude change wouldn't be attained without grasping the real cause of a problem. The researcher tries to demonstrate how this characteristic is at play in counseling process. The researcher illustrates this process by 'narrative method' as one of qualitative research methods. The client who had received counseling for stress disorder and insomnia took a turn for the better as soon as getting at the truth of his problem.
This study was conducted to examine the stress effects of time pressure and induced driver-anger on driving performance. The participants in the four different stress conditions(i.e., control condition, time pressure, induced anger, and mixed condition where induced-anger and time pressure were combined) were asked to drive the driving simulator, and their driving performances(i. e., lane crossing, signal violation, speeding, and deviation form designated path) were measured as the dependent variable. The results can be summarized as followings. (1) Induced-anger alone and the mixed driver stresses tended to yield deteriorated driving performances as well as awareness for designated path, (2) Time pressure alone appeared to have only limited effect both on the driving and path awareness. And (3) the effects of induced-anger alone and the mixed condition on driving performance and path awareness did not show ant significant difference. The results of the present study indicated that drivers' basic vehicle control and keeping awareness to destination could be affected differently by the types of driver stress.
The present study explored the major components of adaptive game behavior among adolescents in Korea. Based on relevant research and a pilot testing, an Adaptive Game Use Scale (AGUS) was developed and validated. A stratified sampling procedure was used to draw a representative sample, and a total of 600 male and female students from middle schools and high schools in various regions participated in the study. Factor analyses revealed 7 facets of adaptive game behavior, including experiencing vitality, expanding life experience, making good use of leisure time, experiencing flow, exercising control, experiencing self-esteem, maintaining and expanding social network. Internal consistency and temporal stability(4 weeks) of the scale were both high. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 7-factor hierarchical model fits well with the data. Moreover, additional analyses suggested that AGUS and game addiction are conceptually distinct. Correlational analyses also indicated that AGUS has good discriminant validity and concurrent validity. Implications of the findings and future directions were discussed.