This qualitative study aimed to develop a structural framework that explains the process of psychological adaptation and sequential changes being perceived by Korean people under the COVID-19 Pandemic past year. Setting a tentative analysis frame induced from antecedent literatures about psychological phenomena during the COVID-19 pandemic, the qualitative data were collected from 6 Korean adults by semi structured individual interviews. For the data, content analysis applied from the grounded theory were performed. As a result, the initial framework was extended and revised to describe the psychological phenomena under the pandemic. This paradigm structure includes the process of ‘causal factors ⇒ psychological main phenomena ⇒ sequential results’ being intervened by personal contextual situations and psychological characteristics, as moderators. The category of causal factors were the COVID-19 pandemic, relevant critical incidents, and social distancing policy. The main phenomena reflected either positive, negative, or complicated experiences. The sequential psychological results included transformation of cognitive system or behavior patterns. Various variables such as psychological sense of community and social responsibility, psychological capability for leisure, and positive psychological capital were found out as moderating factors. In discussion and conclusion, theoretical/practical implications of the results and direction to study in the future were suggested.
The purpose of this study is to explore the mediating effect of violence justification, including actor-effect and partner-effect, in the process where the offense motive affects dating violence. The subjects of this study were 135 unmarried male and female couples aged 19 and over who were dating for more than 3 months, and each couple was subjected to a self-report scale on motives, justification of violence, and dating violence. Based on these paraphrasing, as a result of analyzing the path model using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, Men and women’s motivations showed a direct effect on their dating violence, while women’s motivations showed a significant partner effect on men’s violence. The male’s motivation also had a significant impact on his dating violence and partner’s abuse of dating violence as a mediator for justification of his violence. On the other hand, the mediating effect of justifying violence in women was not significant. These results show that there is a gender difference between the motives for violence and the paths for justifying violence in the sex violence of men and women. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study, and suggestions for follow-up studies were discussed.
The purpose of this research was to examine the discrimination between grit and passion; and to compare the relationship between grit and passion between eastern and western culture. The participants were 208 Korean and 251 American undergraduates. Multiple-group factor analysis confirmed the model of four (consistency of interest, perseverance of efforts, harmonious passion, and obsessive passion) factors by configural invariance and partial measurement invariance. Also we found positive correlation between consistency of interest and harmonious passion as well as negative correlation between consistency of interest and obsessive passion in the American sample. However, the correlation between grit(consistency of interest, perseverance of efforts) and passion(harmonious passion, obsessive passion) was not significant in the Korean sample. The results suggest that grit is not accompanied by passion among Korean university students. Findings empirically highlight the distinctiveness of grit and passion and the possibility of cultural differences in grit and passion, which were usually discussed western cultures.
This study aimed to examine the effect of the income change and income level during the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals’ depression, and to test how those associations may differ by gender. Participants consisted of 634 adults(Mage=44.18, SDage=13.88, 313 females) recruited through an online research company. Participants completed a set of questionnaires that measured income change, average monthly income for the past six months, and the Korean version of CES-D. The results indicated that decreases in income, but not levels of income, significantly predicted levels of depression. Furthermore, both income change and income level interacted with gender to predict depression. Specifically, income change predicted depression only for males, while income level predicted depression only for females. These findings suggest that the effects of income-related indicators on depression during the pandemic may differ by gender. The study also offers practical implications by proposing gender as a potential factor to consider in early identification and intervention to prevent depression during the pandemic.
The study aimed to investigate the relation between patriarchal family environment and zero-sum beliefs, and the mediating effect of sexism on the relation based on the Instrumental Model of Group Conflict (Esses et al., 1998). This study also examined the moderating effect of gender on the relation between patriarchal family environment and sexism, and the moderated mediating effect of gender through sexism. Participants were 310 first-year college students (234 males and 76 females) in the college of science and engineering, and they completed a survey consisting of patriarchal family environment, sexism, and zero-sum belief. Data were analyzed using SPSS Macro Process, and the results indicated that the relation between patriarchal family environment and zero-sum beliefs was fully mediated by sexism. In addition, the relation between patriarchal family environment and sexism was moderated by gender. Specifically, patriarchal family environment significantly predicted sexism for men, but not for women. Moreover, only for men, sexism mediated the relation between patriarchal family environment and zero-sum beliefs. Therefore, patriarchal family environment could cause sexism which could promote zero-sum beliefs for men.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the constructs of emotion suppression and help understanding on the multidimensional nature of emotion suppression by classifying constructs for suppression according to the KMW model. Also, this study examined the gender differences of emotion suppression. For this purpose, 657 adult male and female subjects were evaluated for attitude toward emotions, and difficulty in emotional regulation, as well as depression, state anger and daily stress scale. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis on the scales related to the emotion suppression factors, the emotion suppression factors corresponding to each stage of the KMW model were found to be ‘distraction against emotional information, ‘difficulty in understanding and interpretation of emotions’, ‘emotion control beliefs’, ‘vulnerability on emotional expression beliefs’. Next, the study participants were classified by performing a cluster analysis based on each emotion suppression factor. As a result, four clusters were extracted and named ‘emotional control belief cluster’, ‘emotional expression cluster’, ‘emotional attention failure cluster’, and ‘general emotional suppression cluster’. As a result of examining the average difference of male depression, depression, state anger, and daily stress for each group, significant differences were found in all dependent variables. As a result of examining whether there is a difference in the frequency of emotional suppression clusters according to gender, the frequency of emotional suppression clusters was high in men, and the ratio of emotional expression clusters was high in women. Finally, it was analyzed whether there was a gender difference in the effect of the emotional suppression cluster on psychosocial adaptation, and the implications were discussed based on the results of this study.
The current study examined the differential effects of giving and receiving social support in the elderly when relationships(family, friend/neighbor) are important. For this purpose, the mediation effects of meaning in life on the relationship between giving and receiving social support and self-esteem were analyzed. Self-reporting data of 310 adults aged over 60 living in Busan and Gyeongnam in South Korea were collected regarding giving and receiving social support, meaning of life and self-esteem. The mediation analysis showed that giving social support had a positive effect on self-esteem with the partial mediation effect of meaning in life. Receiving social support, however, showed no significant mediation effect of meaning in life. This pattern was similar regardless of both family and non-family relations. The result that giving social support enhances self-worth in the elderly through meaning in life suggests the importance of social interaction with intimate others as a source of happiness in the elderly.
This study examines how people perceive and experience busyness, which is a great social pressure in the Korean society, and The socio-psychological motives that drive people’s different paces of life, such as busyness or slowness, despite being in the same busy reality, were examined. Furthermore, an in-depth study was conducted on the adaptation factors in the real society according to the speed of individual life. The analysis of this study was based on an in-depth interview data of 21 unmarried men and women in their 20s and 30s, and was conducted using a phenomenological qualitative analysis method. As a result, the perception and experience of being busy had both positive and negative parts. The components of socio-psychological motivation that affect the speed of an individual’s life are ‘internalization of positive values of (busy/rest)’, ‘(future/present) centric’, ‘selection & concentration/Inertial busyness’, ‘personality characteristics’ were derived. In addition, ‘self-selection’, ‘successful time management’, and ‘maintenance of psychological health’ were derived as common factors among adaptation factors in real society, ‘a sense of achievement’ and ‘understanding and accepting self-characteristics’ were derived as discriminatory factors. became Based on these results, the value and meaning of being busy in Korean society was discussed from a social psychology perspective, and a new perspective was presented to existing studies and discussions related to the speed of life. In addition, several follow-up studies were proposed.
This study was conducted to classify 601 Korean adults into latent classes according to their love types and identify the differences in depression and find variables that affect the latent classes classification. As a result of the latent class analysis, the latent group for love types of Korean adults were classified into the L-H (7.7%) group, which showed the highest level of all three factors of intimacy, passion, and commitment, and the L-MH (33.6%) group, which all three factors were higher than the average, the L-M (39.8%) group with the mean of all three factors, the L-ML (14.6%) group with all three factors lower than the mean, and the L-L (4.3%) group with the lowest all three factors. Also, as a result of ANOVA, the L-MH group was psychologically healthier and more adaptive than the L-ML group. As a result of multinomial logistic analysis, females were more likely to belong to L-M, L-ML and L-L groups than males. In addition, singles were more likely to belong to the L-M and L-ML groups than those who were married. Also, the higher the anxiety attachment level, the higher the likelihood of belonging to the L-M, L-ML, and L-L groups than the L-H and L-MH groups, the L-ML and L-L groups than the L-M groups, and the L-L group rather than the L-ML groups. However, age, neuroticism, and emotional regulation did not affect the classification of latent classes. This study is meaningful in that it identified the various latent classes for the love types of Korean adults more three-dimensionally and suggested the possibility of differential interventions according to the characteristics of each group.
In order to examine the variables affecting gambling behavior and find intervention strategies, this study examined the effects of basic psychological needs satisfaction on the severity of gambling behavior and low-level gambling behavior through the general motivation level and mattering respectively. Self-reported data of 402 adults who have participated in gambling at least once in the last 3 months were analyzed, and dual-mediator model was conducted. Basic psychological needs satisfaction significantly contributed to gambling behavior severity through general motivation and mattering. Specifically, basic psychological needs satisfaction had a significant positive effect on mattering through general motivation. and mattering through this path had a significant negative effect on gambling behavior severity. On the other hand, basic psychological needs satisfaction had a significant negative effect on low-level gambling behavior, but the dual mediating effect of general motivation and mattering was not significant in this relationship. Based on these results, the theoretical implications on the effects of the general motivation and interpersonal presence on gambling behavior were proposed, study limitations and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the dual mediating effects of self-compassion and gratitude between perceived stress and insomnia in college students. For this study, 330 undergraduate students from Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do were surveyed about perceived stress, insomnia severity, self compassion, and gratitude. Regression, SPSS Macros, and bootstrapping methods were applied to verify the dual mediation effects. The results of this study were as follows. First, the positive effect of the perceived stress on the insomnia was observed to be significant. Second, self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and insomnia. Third, gratitude partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and insomnia. Lastly, the perceived stress indirectly influenced insomnia through the dual mediation effect of self-compassion and gratitude. Focusing on these results, we discussed that stress management is important to prevent and alliviate insomnia of undergraduates and that intervention to promote self compassion and gratitude is needed.
This study compared the influences of Korean psycho-social experiences on emotional-distress(stress, depression, anxiety, anger) of Koreans between two-periods during COVID-19. First, an online survey was conducted among 600 participants between April 13, 2020 and 21, while WHO had declared the pandemic, and Daegu-Gyungbuk were declared as a special-disaster area. Second, an online survey was conducted among 482 participants out of 600 study participants from the first study during August 21 to September 2, while COVID-19 re-spreaded around the world, and total confirmed cases were over 1,000 for a week in Seoul-Gyeonggi province. Hierarchical-regression analysis was used to determine the influence of personal characteristics, fear and social constraints, relationship conflict and income-decreasing factors on stress, depression, anxiety, anger in the two-time points. Results suggest that gender, quality-of-life, 'frequent information-checking about COVID-19', 'fear of unpredictability' and 'difficulties on hospital treatment access' predicted distress(stress, depression, anxiety, anger) at both Time1 and 2. 'Difficulties with official schedule' predicted distress at Time 1, and age, vulnerability to infection and difficulties with personal schedules predicted distress(stress, depression, anxiety, anger) at Time 2. Based on the reseults, implications and recommendations were presented.