The purpose of this research is to analyze male oriented military culture and gender discrimination. It examined whether the experience of military service would affect the attitude of Korean college students, gender role identity, and sexism by classifying 317 college students into three groups; males who have completed military service, males who haven't completed military service, and a female group. Research results are as follows: First, in general military experience did not enhance awareness of gender identity nor affect attitudes toward gender discrimination, but significantly enhanced masculinity in some males who completed military service was a major factor in strengthening masculinity and benevolent sexism. Second, males who completed military service and women had a more positive view of the military than males who had yet to serve in the military. Third, regardless of military experience and gender, military experience was perceived to enhance benevolent sexism towards women. Fourth, all three groups showed a strikingly positive correlation in hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. However, they did not show a significant difference in the correlation of groups. Tough these results indicate that deep-rooted gender discrimination in Korean society is enhanced by military experience, it also confirms the significance and impact of the reality of the military ideology.
In this study, multilateral conceptualizations of underemployment were measured in terms of wages, social status, skill utilization and permanence of the job, and then the effects of antecedents on underemployment and the effects of underemployment on organizational adaptation were examined. Data obtained by a longitudinally designed survey at intervals of 18 months with the reemployed(N = 153) after job loss were used. The underemployment measures include 1) the ratio of wage change 2) the ratio of status change 3) the ratio of education 4) the occurrence of change from the permanent job to temporary job, 5) overqualification - growth opportunity, 6) overqualification - mismatch. The first four measures are social-economic and objective measures and the last two measures are psychological and self-reported ones. Demographic variables(sex, age, education level, and period of unemployed), circumstantial variables(economic hardship, number of dependents), and psychological variables(job-seeking self-efficacy, depression/anxiety, latent function) are included in antecedents. In the effects of antecedents on underemployment, age increases the level of underemployment in the aspects of wage and job status. Economic hardship increases the possibility of underemployment in the aspects of education and number of dependents increases the possibility of underemployment in the aspects of job status. Job seeking self-efficacy decreases the possibility of underemployment in the overqualification - no growth. Retention of latent function during the period of unemployment lowers the possibility of underemployment in the overqualification - no growth. The level of depression and anxiety during the period of unemployment raises the possibility of underemployment in terms of education and in the overqualification - mismatch. In the effects of underemployment on organizational adaptation, the higher the level of underemployment in the aspect of education is, the lower the level of person-organization fit, emotional commitment, and job satisfaction are. And the transition from permanent job to temporary job makes emotional commitment and job satisfaction lower. No growth and mismatch exerted a significant influence on organizational adaptation generally.
This study focused on the effects of median type on drivers' subjective sense of speed and the changes in this sense by driver age. Participants were 61 drivers: 20 young (aged 20-39 years), 19 middle-aged (40-59 years), and 22 older drivers (60+ years). The participants watched each of two driving scenarios, showing either a guardrail-equipped or a concrete median. The participants were asked to push a button when they perceived speeds of 60 km/h, 80 km/h, or 100 km/h. All drivers perceived higher speeds in the guardrail condition than in the concrete condition. Perceived speeds increased with driver age in both guardrail and concrete conditions. These results mean median type affects drivers' subjective sense of speed even as driver age increases, and that drivers' subjective sense of speed tends to increase with age.
The purpose of the present study is to examine effects of anger expression and perceived emotional competence on school anger in adolescents. The participants were 304 high school students (134 males, 170 females). They were administered the anger-related subscales (anger-out, anger-in, and anger control) of the Korean Version of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-K), the Korean Version of Trait Meta-Mood Scale (K-TMMS), and the Korean Version of School Anger Inventory(SAI-K). The results showed that school anger positively correlated with anger-out and anger-in, and negatively correlated with anger control and perceived emotional competence. Neither interaction effects of anger-out and perceived emotional competence nor interaction effects of anger-in and perceived emotional competence on school anger were significant. On the contrary, interaction effects of anger control and perceived emotional competence on school anger were significant. The results of post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of anger control on school anger was significant in the case of high perceived emotional competence but not significant in the case of low perceived emotional competence. Based on these results, it was suggested that psychological programs designed to reduce school anger in adolescents need effective measures to enhance not only anger control skills but also perceived emotional competence.
This study investigates leisure activity, involvement and self-concept in cyberspace of various age groups of adolescents. A total of 1,388 students (elementary school=337, middle school=326, high school=361, university=364, consisting of 696 male and 692 female) participated in the study. The results are as follows. First, although the vast majority of adolescents (96.9%) had a computer at home, majority of adolescents visited Internet cafe. Second, 70.3% of adolescents visited Internet cafe to play Internet games, followed by engaging in information search, chatting, and participated in cyber community. Third, on average adolescents spent 5.43 hours per week playing Internet games, with more males playing Internet games than female adolescents. As for information search, the weekly average was 2.60 hours, with university students spending more time than the other groups. As for chatting, the weekly average was 1.69 hours, with no significant differences among the groups. The weekly average of Internet use was 9.65 hours, with older groups spending more time. The weekly average use of computer was 10.91 hours, with older groups spending more time and more males using more computer than females. Fourth, as for self-concept in cyberspace, elementary and middle school students reported that they had fun, while high school and university students reported that they were the same as in the regular daily life. In addition, adolescents reported that they spent leisure activity in cyberspace and they become a fictional character in cyberspace. Fifth, when they played Internet games, regardless of age and gender, adolescents reported that they had fun, followed by that they were absorbed, that they became aggressive, and that they were the same as in the regular daily life. Sixth, when they chatted on Internet, regardless of age and gender, adolescents reported that they had fun, followed by that they were not interested, that they were the same as in the regular daily life, and that they do not chat on Internet. Seventh, when they interacted with their friends on Internet, regardless of age and gender, majority of adolescents reported that they had fun, followed by that they conversed, that they were the same as in the regular daily life, and that they felt closer. These results indicate that Korean adolescents view Internet as a place to spend their leisure time and that they enjoyed spending time on Internet.
As Korean society was changed from the traditional into the modern and once again is transforming into high modern society, meanings of leisure also are changing. However there were not many researches on changes of the two and even those were rarely found that leisure studies are based on theories in Korean academic context. The study provides changes of meanings of leisure from the theory of civilizing process and a detailed and critical examination of crises of Korean national identities in globalising society. As such reminds us that at a time changing structure of psyche and society delivers a new approach to our evaluation and appreciation of leisure. During the modernizing of Korean society work was a top priority and leisure could not take any priority over all other social institutions. However in a globalising world leisure has been taking as a vital sources of Korean dynamics.
Rapid social changes due to digitization have created new psychological challenges of adapting and coping. Plays are in the center of these changes. Plays used to be collateral activities of labor in the traditional society and industrial society, but they have become key activities embracing economy, society, culture in a digital society that has been maximized productivity and efficiency. Still, the theoretical approach of plays is based on the industrial societies. Analyzing these points, the psychological impacts of players using multimedia, social networking, and digital games utilizing both of them was dealt in this article. I dealt with multimedia, social networking, and digital games as key characteristic of digital culture. The difference between traditional psychology and Digital Cultural Psychology was dealt in the perspective of self-concept, information processing, and sex role. Then the conclusion on the future directions of Digital Cultural Psychology and its limitations will be followed.
The purpose of this study was to compare the kinds of plays and the meanings of words in play songs among children of Han heritage. A total of three data sets were used. Data for two of the data sets were obtained from only South Korean children in 1990 and 2005, respectively, while the other data set contained responses from South Korean, Chinese Korean, and North Korean children collected in 1999. The three societies of Han heritage differed in the level of economic and industrial development and ideological orientation, and each society tended to socialize and educate their children in different ways. The kind of plays and the lyrics of the play songs were different in each stage by the level of economic and industrial development, and ideological orientation. In each society, a dominant play changed periodically. For instance, physical play decreased while television, video, and internet game plays increased. The increase in internet game play was related to the level of industrial development. Although three groups shared some common play songs prior to 1945, they have developed their own play songs after 1945 according to their respective social ideological characteristics. Notwithstanding these differences in play songs, common themes, materials, rhythms, and the Korean emotionality exist across all groups.