Since the early 2000s, Korea has continued to increase the proportion of the elderly population due to low fertility and increased life expectancy. As a result, Korea has now entered the aging society. Because of this demographic change, proportion of active elderly have increased, and many academics, such as sociology, economics, and psychology, have conducted various studies on the active elderly. This study focused on active elderly based on the activity theory of old age and the positive effect of small community participation activity on the elderly. The purpose of this study is to examine whether active elderly’ participation in everyday activities, small community participation of the elderly affect citizen participation actively in society as a citizen, and in the process, mediates the effect of small community cohesion and the moderating effect of small community selfishness. This study performed a stepwise regression analysis and a hierarchical regression analysis of 700 elderly people who are participated actively in various small communities. As a result, the partial mediating effect of small community cohesion was shown in the relationship between participation in everyday activities and citizen participation, and the moderating effect of small community selfishness was also shown. These findings suggest that government and interested parties need to develop and implement policies for the small community participation of elderly citizens in consideration of their small community activities, small community cohesion and small community egoism.
The purpose of this study is to explore female office worker’s bullying experience in the workplace and derive the essential meaning of the experience. For this study, five female workers who experienced workplace bullying were interviewed in-depth and the collected data were analyzed by the method of descriptive phenomenological research of Giorgi. The research questions in this study are ‘How do female workers experience bullying in the workplace?’ and ‘What does it mean to experience bullying in the workplace?’ The result of this study is indicated 5 main themes and 19 sub-themes. The 5 main themes are as followed: ‘tactfully bullied by perpetrators perceived as a stumbling block’, ‘struggling with the suffering’, ‘trying to stand up in a frustration’, ‘getting a new perspective looking back on herself as a woman’, ‘being left in the maze, unable to discern who was wrong’. Furthermore, the study suggested common and core elements of female worker’s bullying experience, and proposed a generic framework of the relationship among the elements. Finally, discussions and implications applicable to counseling were presented.
The purpose of this study was to construct and test a hypothetical model about impact of childhood trauma on Relationship Addiction of Korean adults the multiple mediating effects of rejection sensitivity and internalized shame. A purposive sample of 465 Korean adults was recruited from three provincial areas. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS 23.0 and AMOS 23.0 programs. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling were performed. Multiple mediating effects analysis using phantom variable and bootstrapping were implemented to verify the mediating effect of the research model. We found no significant direct effect of childhood trauma on relationship addiction, but the effects of childhood trauma on Relationship Addiction were successively multi-mediated by internalized shame and rejection sensitivity (B=.265, p<.01), and single-mediated by internalized shame (B=.496, p<.01). Based on the results of this study, it can be suggested that in order to prevent relationship addiction of adults, it is necessary to first explore whether he has experienced childhood trauma and thereby has not only internalized shame but also rejection sensitivity.